This is xnu-4903.221.2. See this file in:
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2000-2017 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
 *
 * @APPLE_OSREFERENCE_LICENSE_HEADER_START@
 *
 * This file contains Original Code and/or Modifications of Original Code
 * as defined in and that are subject to the Apple Public Source License
 * Version 2.0 (the 'License'). You may not use this file except in
 * compliance with the License. The rights granted to you under the License
 * may not be used to create, or enable the creation or redistribution of,
 * unlawful or unlicensed copies of an Apple operating system, or to
 * circumvent, violate, or enable the circumvention or violation of, any
 * terms of an Apple operating system software license agreement.
 *
 * Please obtain a copy of the License at
 * http://www.opensource.apple.com/apsl/ and read it before using this file.
 *
 * The Original Code and all software distributed under the License are
 * distributed on an 'AS IS' basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
 * EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND APPLE HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL SUCH WARRANTIES,
 * INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, QUIET ENJOYMENT OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.
 * Please see the License for the specific language governing rights and
 * limitations under the License.
 *
 * @APPLE_OSREFERENCE_LICENSE_HEADER_END@
 */
/* Copyright (c) 1995-2018 Apple, Inc. All Rights Reserved */

#include <sys/cdefs.h>

// <rdar://problem/26158937> panic() should be marked noreturn
extern void panic(const char *string, ...) __printflike(1,2) __dead2;

#include <kern/assert.h>
#include <kern/ast.h>
#include <kern/clock.h>
#include <kern/cpu_data.h>
#include <kern/kern_types.h>
#include <kern/policy_internal.h>
#include <kern/processor.h>
#include <kern/sched_prim.h>	/* for thread_exception_return */
#include <kern/task.h>
#include <kern/thread.h>
#include <kern/zalloc.h>
#include <mach/kern_return.h>
#include <mach/mach_param.h>
#include <mach/mach_port.h>
#include <mach/mach_types.h>
#include <mach/mach_vm.h>
#include <mach/sync_policy.h>
#include <mach/task.h>
#include <mach/thread_act.h> /* for thread_resume */
#include <mach/thread_policy.h>
#include <mach/thread_status.h>
#include <mach/vm_prot.h>
#include <mach/vm_statistics.h>
#include <machine/atomic.h>
#include <machine/machine_routines.h>
#include <vm/vm_map.h>
#include <vm/vm_protos.h>

#include <sys/eventvar.h>
#include <sys/kdebug.h>
#include <sys/kernel.h>
#include <sys/lock.h>
#include <sys/param.h>
#include <sys/proc_info.h>	/* for fill_procworkqueue */
#include <sys/proc_internal.h>
#include <sys/pthread_shims.h>
#include <sys/resourcevar.h>
#include <sys/signalvar.h>
#include <sys/sysctl.h>
#include <sys/sysproto.h>
#include <sys/systm.h>
#include <sys/ulock.h> /* for ulock_owner_value_to_port_name */

#include <pthread/bsdthread_private.h>
#include <pthread/workqueue_syscalls.h>
#include <pthread/workqueue_internal.h>
#include <pthread/workqueue_trace.h>

#include <os/log.h>

extern thread_t	port_name_to_thread(mach_port_name_t port_name); /* osfmk/kern/ipc_tt.h   */

static void workq_unpark_continue(void *uth, wait_result_t wr) __dead2;
static void workq_schedule_creator(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq, int flags);

static bool workq_threadreq_admissible(struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth,
		workq_threadreq_t req);

static uint32_t workq_constrained_allowance(struct workqueue *wq,
		thread_qos_t at_qos, struct uthread *uth, bool may_start_timer);

static bool workq_thread_is_busy(uint64_t cur_ts,
		_Atomic uint64_t *lastblocked_tsp);

static int workq_sysctl_handle_usecs SYSCTL_HANDLER_ARGS;

#pragma mark globals

struct workq_usec_var {
	uint32_t usecs;
	uint64_t abstime;
};

#define WORKQ_SYSCTL_USECS(var, init) \
		static struct workq_usec_var var = { .usecs = init }; \
		SYSCTL_OID(_kern, OID_AUTO, var##_usecs, \
				CTLTYPE_INT | CTLFLAG_RW | CTLFLAG_LOCKED, &var, 0, \
				workq_sysctl_handle_usecs, "I", "")

static lck_grp_t      *workq_lck_grp;
static lck_attr_t     *workq_lck_attr;
static lck_grp_attr_t *workq_lck_grp_attr;
os_refgrp_decl(static, workq_refgrp, "workq", NULL);

static zone_t workq_zone_workqueue;
static zone_t workq_zone_threadreq;

WORKQ_SYSCTL_USECS(wq_stalled_window,     WQ_STALLED_WINDOW_USECS);
WORKQ_SYSCTL_USECS(wq_reduce_pool_window, WQ_REDUCE_POOL_WINDOW_USECS);
WORKQ_SYSCTL_USECS(wq_max_timer_interval, WQ_MAX_TIMER_INTERVAL_USECS);
static uint32_t wq_max_threads              = WORKQUEUE_MAXTHREADS;
static uint32_t wq_max_constrained_threads  = WORKQUEUE_MAXTHREADS / 8;
static uint32_t wq_init_constrained_limit   = 1;
static uint16_t wq_death_max_load;
static uint32_t wq_max_parallelism[WORKQ_NUM_QOS_BUCKETS];

#pragma mark sysctls

static int
workq_sysctl_handle_usecs SYSCTL_HANDLER_ARGS
{
#pragma unused(arg2)
	struct workq_usec_var *v = arg1;
	int error = sysctl_handle_int(oidp, &v->usecs, 0, req);
	if (error || !req->newptr)
		return error;
	clock_interval_to_absolutetime_interval(v->usecs, NSEC_PER_USEC,
			&v->abstime);
	return 0;
}

SYSCTL_INT(_kern, OID_AUTO, wq_max_threads, CTLFLAG_RW | CTLFLAG_LOCKED,
		&wq_max_threads, 0, "");

SYSCTL_INT(_kern, OID_AUTO, wq_max_constrained_threads, CTLFLAG_RW | CTLFLAG_LOCKED,
		&wq_max_constrained_threads, 0, "");

#pragma mark p_wqptr

#define WQPTR_IS_INITING_VALUE ((struct workqueue *)~(uintptr_t)0)

static struct workqueue *
proc_get_wqptr_fast(struct proc *p)
{
	return os_atomic_load(&p->p_wqptr, relaxed);
}

static struct workqueue *
proc_get_wqptr(struct proc *p)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr_fast(p);
	return wq == WQPTR_IS_INITING_VALUE ? NULL : wq;
}

static void
proc_set_wqptr(struct proc *p, struct workqueue *wq)
{
	wq = os_atomic_xchg(&p->p_wqptr, wq, release);
	if (wq == WQPTR_IS_INITING_VALUE) {
		proc_lock(p);
		thread_wakeup(&p->p_wqptr);
		proc_unlock(p);
	}
}

static bool
proc_init_wqptr_or_wait(struct proc *p)
{
	struct workqueue *wq;

	proc_lock(p);
	wq = p->p_wqptr;

	if (wq == NULL) {
		p->p_wqptr = WQPTR_IS_INITING_VALUE;
		proc_unlock(p);
		return true;
	}

	if (wq == WQPTR_IS_INITING_VALUE) {
		assert_wait(&p->p_wqptr, THREAD_UNINT);
		proc_unlock(p);
		thread_block(THREAD_CONTINUE_NULL);
	} else {
		proc_unlock(p);
	}
	return false;
}

static inline event_t
workq_parked_wait_event(struct uthread *uth)
{
	return (event_t)&uth->uu_workq_stackaddr;
}

static inline void
workq_thread_wakeup(struct uthread *uth)
{
	if ((uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_IDLE_CLEANUP) == 0) {
		thread_wakeup_thread(workq_parked_wait_event(uth), uth->uu_thread);
	}
}

#pragma mark wq_thactive

#if defined(__LP64__)
// Layout is:
//   127 - 115 : 13 bits of zeroes
//   114 - 112 : best QoS among all pending constrained requests
//   111 -   0 : MGR, AUI, UI, IN, DF, UT, BG+MT buckets every 16 bits
#define WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH 16
#define WQ_THACTIVE_QOS_SHIFT    (7 * WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH)
#else
// Layout is:
//   63 - 61 : best QoS among all pending constrained requests
//   60      : Manager bucket (0 or 1)
//   59 -  0 : AUI, UI, IN, DF, UT, BG+MT buckets every 10 bits
#define WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH 10
#define WQ_THACTIVE_QOS_SHIFT    (6 * WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH + 1)
#endif
#define WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_MASK  ((1U << WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH) - 1)
#define WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_HALF  (1U << (WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH - 1))

static_assert(sizeof(wq_thactive_t) * CHAR_BIT - WQ_THACTIVE_QOS_SHIFT >= 3,
		"Make sure we have space to encode a QoS");

static inline wq_thactive_t
_wq_thactive(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	return os_atomic_load(&wq->wq_thactive, relaxed);
}

static inline int
_wq_bucket(thread_qos_t qos)
{
	// Map both BG and MT to the same bucket by over-shifting down and
	// clamping MT and BG together.
	switch (qos) {
	case THREAD_QOS_MAINTENANCE:
		return 0;
	default:
		return qos - 2;
	}
}

#define WQ_THACTIVE_BEST_CONSTRAINED_REQ_QOS(tha) \
		((tha) >> WQ_THACTIVE_QOS_SHIFT)

static inline thread_qos_t
_wq_thactive_best_constrained_req_qos(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	// Avoid expensive atomic operations: the three bits we're loading are in
	// a single byte, and always updated under the workqueue lock
	wq_thactive_t v = *(wq_thactive_t *)&wq->wq_thactive;
	return WQ_THACTIVE_BEST_CONSTRAINED_REQ_QOS(v);
}

static void
_wq_thactive_refresh_best_constrained_req_qos(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	thread_qos_t old_qos, new_qos;
	workq_threadreq_t req;

	req = priority_queue_max(&wq->wq_constrained_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry);
	new_qos = req ? req->tr_qos : THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED;
	old_qos = _wq_thactive_best_constrained_req_qos(wq);
	if (old_qos != new_qos) {
		long delta = (long)new_qos - (long)old_qos;
		wq_thactive_t v = (wq_thactive_t)delta << WQ_THACTIVE_QOS_SHIFT;
		/*
		 * We can do an atomic add relative to the initial load because updates
		 * to this qos are always serialized under the workqueue lock.
		 */
		v = os_atomic_add(&wq->wq_thactive, v, relaxed);
#ifdef __LP64__
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thactive_update, wq, (uint64_t)v,
				(uint64_t)(v >> 64), 0, 0);
#else
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thactive_update, wq, v, 0, 0, 0);
#endif
	}
}

static inline wq_thactive_t
_wq_thactive_offset_for_qos(thread_qos_t qos)
{
	return (wq_thactive_t)1 << (_wq_bucket(qos) * WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH);
}

static inline wq_thactive_t
_wq_thactive_inc(struct workqueue *wq, thread_qos_t qos)
{
	wq_thactive_t v = _wq_thactive_offset_for_qos(qos);
	return os_atomic_add_orig(&wq->wq_thactive, v, relaxed);
}

static inline wq_thactive_t
_wq_thactive_dec(struct workqueue *wq, thread_qos_t qos)
{
	wq_thactive_t v = _wq_thactive_offset_for_qos(qos);
	return os_atomic_sub_orig(&wq->wq_thactive, v, relaxed);
}

static inline void
_wq_thactive_move(struct workqueue *wq,
		thread_qos_t old_qos, thread_qos_t new_qos)
{
	wq_thactive_t v = _wq_thactive_offset_for_qos(new_qos) -
			_wq_thactive_offset_for_qos(old_qos);
	os_atomic_add_orig(&wq->wq_thactive, v, relaxed);
	wq->wq_thscheduled_count[_wq_bucket(old_qos)]--;
	wq->wq_thscheduled_count[_wq_bucket(new_qos)]++;
}

static inline uint32_t
_wq_thactive_aggregate_downto_qos(struct workqueue *wq, wq_thactive_t v,
		thread_qos_t qos, uint32_t *busycount, uint32_t *max_busycount)
{
	uint32_t count = 0, active;
	uint64_t curtime;

	assert(WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MIN <= qos && qos <= WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MAX);

	if (busycount) {
		curtime = mach_absolute_time();
		*busycount = 0;
	}
	if (max_busycount) {
		*max_busycount = THREAD_QOS_LAST - qos;
	}

	int i = _wq_bucket(qos);
	v >>= i * WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH;
	for (; i < WORKQ_NUM_QOS_BUCKETS; i++, v >>= WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_WIDTH) {
		active = v & WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_MASK;
		count += active;

		if (busycount && wq->wq_thscheduled_count[i] > active) {
			if (workq_thread_is_busy(curtime, &wq->wq_lastblocked_ts[i])) {
				/*
				 * We only consider the last blocked thread for a given bucket
				 * as busy because we don't want to take the list lock in each
				 * sched callback. However this is an approximation that could
				 * contribute to thread creation storms.
				 */
				(*busycount)++;
			}
		}
	}

	return count;
}

#pragma mark wq_flags

static inline uint32_t
_wq_flags(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	return os_atomic_load(&wq->wq_flags, relaxed);
}

static inline bool
_wq_exiting(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	return _wq_flags(wq) & WQ_EXITING;
}

bool
workq_is_exiting(struct proc *p)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	return !wq || _wq_exiting(wq);
}

struct turnstile *
workq_turnstile(struct proc *p)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	return wq ? wq->wq_turnstile : TURNSTILE_NULL;
}

#pragma mark workqueue lock

static bool
workq_lock_spin_is_acquired_kdp(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	return kdp_lck_spin_is_acquired(&wq->wq_lock);
}

static inline void
workq_lock_spin(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	lck_spin_lock(&wq->wq_lock);
}

static inline void
workq_lock_held(__assert_only struct workqueue *wq)
{
	LCK_SPIN_ASSERT(&wq->wq_lock, LCK_ASSERT_OWNED);
}

static inline bool
workq_lock_try(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	return lck_spin_try_lock(&wq->wq_lock);
}

static inline void
workq_unlock(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	lck_spin_unlock(&wq->wq_lock);
}

#pragma mark idle thread lists

#define WORKQ_POLICY_INIT(qos) \
		(struct uu_workq_policy){ .qos_req = qos, .qos_bucket = qos }

static inline thread_qos_t
workq_pri_bucket(struct uu_workq_policy req)
{
	return MAX(MAX(req.qos_req, req.qos_max), req.qos_override);
}

static inline thread_qos_t
workq_pri_override(struct uu_workq_policy req)
{
	return MAX(workq_pri_bucket(req), req.qos_bucket);
}

static inline bool
workq_thread_needs_params_change(workq_threadreq_t req, struct uthread *uth)
{
	workq_threadreq_param_t cur_trp, req_trp = { };

	cur_trp.trp_value = uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.workloop_params;
	if (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WL_PARAMS) {
		req_trp = kqueue_threadreq_workloop_param(req);
	}

	/*
	 * CPU percent flags are handled separately to policy changes, so ignore
	 * them for all of these checks.
	 */
	uint16_t cur_flags = (cur_trp.trp_flags & ~TRP_CPUPERCENT);
	uint16_t req_flags = (req_trp.trp_flags & ~TRP_CPUPERCENT);

	if (!req_flags && !cur_flags) {
		return false;
	}

	if (req_flags != cur_flags) {
		return true;
	}

	if ((req_flags & TRP_PRIORITY) && req_trp.trp_pri != cur_trp.trp_pri) {
		return true;
	}

	if ((req_flags & TRP_POLICY) && cur_trp.trp_pol != cur_trp.trp_pol) {
		return true;
	}

	return false;
}

static inline bool
workq_thread_needs_priority_change(workq_threadreq_t req, struct uthread *uth)
{
	if (workq_thread_needs_params_change(req, uth)) {
		return true;
	}

	return req->tr_qos != workq_pri_override(uth->uu_workq_pri);
}

static void
workq_thread_update_bucket(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth,
		struct uu_workq_policy old_pri, struct uu_workq_policy new_pri,
		bool force_run)
{
	thread_qos_t old_bucket = old_pri.qos_bucket;
	thread_qos_t new_bucket = workq_pri_bucket(new_pri);

	if (old_bucket != new_bucket) {
		_wq_thactive_move(wq, old_bucket, new_bucket);
	}

	new_pri.qos_bucket = new_bucket;
	uth->uu_workq_pri = new_pri;

	if (workq_pri_override(old_pri) != new_bucket) {
		thread_set_workq_override(uth->uu_thread, new_bucket);
	}

	if (wq->wq_reqcount && (old_bucket > new_bucket || force_run)) {
		int flags = WORKQ_THREADREQ_CAN_CREATE_THREADS;
		if (old_bucket > new_bucket) {
			/*
			 * When lowering our bucket, we may unblock a thread request,
			 * but we can't drop our priority before we have evaluated
			 * whether this is the case, and if we ever drop the workqueue lock
			 * that would cause a priority inversion.
			 *
			 * We hence have to disallow thread creation in that case.
			 */
			flags = 0;
		}
		workq_schedule_creator(p, wq, flags);
	}
}

/*
 * Sets/resets the cpu percent limits on the current thread. We can't set
 * these limits from outside of the current thread, so this function needs
 * to be called when we're executing on the intended
 */
static void
workq_thread_reset_cpupercent(workq_threadreq_t req, struct uthread *uth)
{
	assert(uth == current_uthread());
	workq_threadreq_param_t trp = { };

	if (req && (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WL_PARAMS)) {
		trp = kqueue_threadreq_workloop_param(req);
	}

	if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_CPUPERCENT) {
		/*
		 * Going through disable when we have an existing CPU percent limit
		 * set will force the ledger to refill the token bucket of the current
		 * thread. Removing any penalty applied by previous thread use.
		 */
		thread_set_cpulimit(THREAD_CPULIMIT_DISABLE, 0, 0);
		uth->uu_workq_flags &= ~UT_WORKQ_CPUPERCENT;
	}

	if (trp.trp_flags & TRP_CPUPERCENT) {
		thread_set_cpulimit(THREAD_CPULIMIT_BLOCK, trp.trp_cpupercent,
				(uint64_t)trp.trp_refillms * NSEC_PER_SEC);
		uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_CPUPERCENT;
	}
}

static void
workq_thread_reset_pri(struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth,
		workq_threadreq_t req)
{
	thread_t th = uth->uu_thread;
	thread_qos_t qos = req ? req->tr_qos : WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_CLEANUP;
	workq_threadreq_param_t trp = { };
	int priority = 31;
	int policy = POLICY_TIMESHARE;

	if (req && (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WL_PARAMS)) {
		trp = kqueue_threadreq_workloop_param(req);
	}

	uth->uu_workq_pri = WORKQ_POLICY_INIT(qos);
	uth->uu_workq_flags &= ~UT_WORKQ_OUTSIDE_QOS;
	uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.workloop_params = trp.trp_value;

	// qos sent out to userspace (may differ from uu_workq_pri on param threads)
	uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.qos = qos;

	if (qos == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
		uint32_t mgr_pri = wq->wq_event_manager_priority;
		assert(trp.trp_value == 0); // manager qos and thread policy don't mix

		if (mgr_pri & _PTHREAD_PRIORITY_SCHED_PRI_FLAG) {
			mgr_pri &= _PTHREAD_PRIORITY_SCHED_PRI_MASK;
			thread_set_workq_pri(th, THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED, mgr_pri,
					POLICY_TIMESHARE);
			return;
		}

		qos = _pthread_priority_thread_qos(mgr_pri);
	} else {
		if (trp.trp_flags & TRP_PRIORITY) {
			qos = THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED;
			priority = trp.trp_pri;
			uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_OUTSIDE_QOS;
		}

		if (trp.trp_flags & TRP_POLICY) {
			policy = trp.trp_pol;
		}
	}

	thread_set_workq_pri(th, qos, priority, policy);
}

/*
 * Called by kevent with the NOTE_WL_THREAD_REQUEST knote lock held,
 * every time a servicer is being told about a new max QoS.
 */
void
workq_thread_set_max_qos(struct proc *p, struct kqrequest *kqr)
{
	struct uu_workq_policy old_pri, new_pri;
	struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(kqr->kqr_thread);
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr_fast(p);
	thread_qos_t qos = kqr->kqr_qos_index;

	if (uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_max == qos)
		return;

	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	old_pri = new_pri = uth->uu_workq_pri;
	new_pri.qos_max = qos;
	workq_thread_update_bucket(p, wq, uth, old_pri, new_pri, false);
	workq_unlock(wq);
}

#pragma mark idle threads accounting and handling

static inline struct uthread *
workq_oldest_killable_idle_thread(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	struct uthread *uth = TAILQ_LAST(&wq->wq_thidlelist, workq_uthread_head);

	if (uth && !uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.has_stack) {
		uth = TAILQ_PREV(uth, workq_uthread_head, uu_workq_entry);
		if (uth) {
			assert(uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.has_stack);
		}
	}
	return uth;
}

static inline uint64_t
workq_kill_delay_for_idle_thread(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	uint64_t delay = wq_reduce_pool_window.abstime;
	uint16_t idle = wq->wq_thidlecount;

	/*
	 * If we have less than wq_death_max_load threads, have a 5s timer.
	 *
	 * For the next wq_max_constrained_threads ones, decay linearly from
	 * from 5s to 50ms.
	 */
	if (idle <= wq_death_max_load) {
		return delay;
	}

	if (wq_max_constrained_threads > idle - wq_death_max_load) {
		delay *= (wq_max_constrained_threads - (idle - wq_death_max_load));
	}
	return delay / wq_max_constrained_threads;
}

static inline bool
workq_should_kill_idle_thread(struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth,
		uint64_t now)
{
	uint64_t delay = workq_kill_delay_for_idle_thread(wq);
	return now - uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.idle_stamp > delay;
}

static void
workq_death_call_schedule(struct workqueue *wq, uint64_t deadline)
{
	uint32_t wq_flags = os_atomic_load(&wq->wq_flags, relaxed);

	if (wq_flags & (WQ_EXITING | WQ_DEATH_CALL_SCHEDULED)) {
		return;
	}
	os_atomic_or(&wq->wq_flags, WQ_DEATH_CALL_SCHEDULED, relaxed);

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_death_call | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 1, 0, 0, 0);

	/*
	 * <rdar://problem/13139182> Due to how long term timers work, the leeway
	 * can't be too short, so use 500ms which is long enough that we will not
	 * wake up the CPU for killing threads, but short enough that it doesn't
	 * fall into long-term timer list shenanigans.
	 */
	thread_call_enter_delayed_with_leeway(wq->wq_death_call, NULL, deadline,
			wq_reduce_pool_window.abstime / 10,
			THREAD_CALL_DELAY_LEEWAY | THREAD_CALL_DELAY_USER_BACKGROUND);
}

/*
 * `decrement` is set to the number of threads that are no longer dying:
 * - because they have been resuscitated just in time (workq_pop_idle_thread)
 * - or have been killed (workq_thread_terminate).
 */
static void
workq_death_policy_evaluate(struct workqueue *wq, uint16_t decrement)
{
	struct uthread *uth;

	assert(wq->wq_thdying_count >= decrement);
	if ((wq->wq_thdying_count -= decrement) > 0)
		return;

	if (wq->wq_thidlecount <= 1)
		return;

	if ((uth = workq_oldest_killable_idle_thread(wq)) == NULL)
		return;

	uint64_t now = mach_absolute_time();
	uint64_t delay = workq_kill_delay_for_idle_thread(wq);

	if (now - uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.idle_stamp > delay) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_terminate | DBG_FUNC_START,
				wq, wq->wq_thidlecount, 0, 0, 0);
		wq->wq_thdying_count++;
		uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_DYING;
		workq_thread_wakeup(uth);
		return;
	}

	workq_death_call_schedule(wq,
			uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.idle_stamp + delay);
}

void
workq_thread_terminate(struct proc *p, struct uthread *uth)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr_fast(p);

	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	TAILQ_REMOVE(&wq->wq_thrunlist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
	if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_DYING) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_terminate | DBG_FUNC_END,
				wq, wq->wq_thidlecount, 0, 0, 0);
		workq_death_policy_evaluate(wq, 1);
	}
	if (wq->wq_nthreads-- == wq_max_threads) {
		/*
		 * We got under the thread limit again, which may have prevented
		 * thread creation from happening, redrive if there are pending requests
		 */
		if (wq->wq_reqcount) {
			workq_schedule_creator(p, wq, WORKQ_THREADREQ_CAN_CREATE_THREADS);
		}
	}
	workq_unlock(wq);

	thread_deallocate(uth->uu_thread);
}

static void
workq_kill_old_threads_call(void *param0, void *param1 __unused)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = param0;

	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_death_call | DBG_FUNC_START, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);
	os_atomic_and(&wq->wq_flags, ~WQ_DEATH_CALL_SCHEDULED, relaxed);
	workq_death_policy_evaluate(wq, 0);
	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_death_call | DBG_FUNC_END, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);
	workq_unlock(wq);
}

static struct uthread *
workq_pop_idle_thread(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	struct uthread *uth;

	if ((uth = TAILQ_FIRST(&wq->wq_thidlelist))) {
		TAILQ_REMOVE(&wq->wq_thidlelist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
	} else {
		uth = TAILQ_FIRST(&wq->wq_thnewlist);
		TAILQ_REMOVE(&wq->wq_thnewlist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
	}
	TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(&wq->wq_thrunlist, uth, uu_workq_entry);

	assert((uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_RUNNING) == 0);
	uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_RUNNING | UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT;
	wq->wq_threads_scheduled++;
	wq->wq_thidlecount--;

	if (__improbable(uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_DYING)) {
		uth->uu_workq_flags ^= UT_WORKQ_DYING;
		workq_death_policy_evaluate(wq, 1);
	}
	return uth;
}

/*
 * Called by thread_create_workq_waiting() during thread initialization, before
 * assert_wait, before the thread has been started.
 */
event_t
workq_thread_init_and_wq_lock(task_t task, thread_t th)
{
	struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(th);

	uth->uu_workq_flags = UT_WORKQ_NEW;
	uth->uu_workq_pri = WORKQ_POLICY_INIT(THREAD_QOS_LEGACY);
	uth->uu_workq_thport = MACH_PORT_NULL;
	uth->uu_workq_stackaddr = 0;

	thread_set_tag(th, THREAD_TAG_PTHREAD | THREAD_TAG_WORKQUEUE);
	thread_reset_workq_qos(th, THREAD_QOS_LEGACY);

	workq_lock_spin(proc_get_wqptr_fast(get_bsdtask_info(task)));
	return workq_parked_wait_event(uth);
}

/**
 * Try to add a new workqueue thread.
 *
 * - called with workq lock held
 * - dropped and retaken around thread creation
 * - return with workq lock held
 */
static bool
workq_add_new_idle_thread(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq)
{
	mach_vm_offset_t th_stackaddr;
	kern_return_t kret;
	thread_t th;

	wq->wq_nthreads++;

	workq_unlock(wq);

	vm_map_t vmap = get_task_map(p->task);

	kret = pthread_functions->workq_create_threadstack(p, vmap, &th_stackaddr);
	if (kret != KERN_SUCCESS) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_create_failed | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq,
				kret, 1, 0, 0);
		goto out;
	}

	kret = thread_create_workq_waiting(p->task, workq_unpark_continue, &th);
	if (kret != KERN_SUCCESS) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_create_failed | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq,
				kret, 0, 0, 0);
		pthread_functions->workq_destroy_threadstack(p, vmap, th_stackaddr);
		goto out;
	}

	// thread_create_workq_waiting() will return with the wq lock held
	// on success, because it calls workq_thread_init_and_wq_lock() above

	struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(th);

	wq->wq_creations++;
	wq->wq_thidlecount++;
	uth->uu_workq_stackaddr = th_stackaddr;
	TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(&wq->wq_thnewlist, uth, uu_workq_entry);

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_create | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);
	return true;

out:
	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	/*
	 * Do not redrive here if we went under wq_max_threads again,
	 * it is the responsibility of the callers of this function
	 * to do so when it fails.
	 */
	wq->wq_nthreads--;
	return false;
}

#define WORKQ_UNPARK_FOR_DEATH_WAS_IDLE 0x1

__attribute__((noreturn, noinline))
static void
workq_unpark_for_death_and_unlock(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq,
		struct uthread *uth, uint32_t death_flags)
{
	thread_qos_t qos = workq_pri_override(uth->uu_workq_pri);
	bool first_use = uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_NEW;

	if (qos > WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_CLEANUP) {
		workq_thread_reset_pri(wq, uth, NULL);
		qos = WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_CLEANUP;
	}

	workq_thread_reset_cpupercent(NULL, uth);

	if (death_flags & WORKQ_UNPARK_FOR_DEATH_WAS_IDLE) {
		wq->wq_thidlecount--;
		if (first_use) {
			TAILQ_REMOVE(&wq->wq_thnewlist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
		} else {
			TAILQ_REMOVE(&wq->wq_thidlelist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
		}
	}
	TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(&wq->wq_thrunlist, uth, uu_workq_entry);

	workq_unlock(wq);

	uint32_t flags = WQ_FLAG_THREAD_NEWSPI | qos | WQ_FLAG_THREAD_PRIO_QOS;
	uint32_t setup_flags = WQ_SETUP_EXIT_THREAD;
	thread_t th = uth->uu_thread;
	vm_map_t vmap = get_task_map(p->task);

	if (!first_use) flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_REUSE;

	pthread_functions->workq_setup_thread(p, th, vmap, uth->uu_workq_stackaddr,
			uth->uu_workq_thport, 0, setup_flags, flags);
	__builtin_unreachable();
}

bool
workq_is_current_thread_updating_turnstile(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	return wq->wq_turnstile_updater == current_thread();
}

__attribute__((always_inline))
static inline void
workq_perform_turnstile_operation_locked(struct workqueue *wq,
		void (^operation)(void))
{
	workq_lock_held(wq);
	wq->wq_turnstile_updater = current_thread();
	operation();
	wq->wq_turnstile_updater = THREAD_NULL;
}

static void
workq_turnstile_update_inheritor(struct workqueue *wq,
		turnstile_inheritor_t inheritor,
		turnstile_update_flags_t flags)
{
	workq_perform_turnstile_operation_locked(wq, ^{
		turnstile_update_inheritor(wq->wq_turnstile, inheritor,
				flags | TURNSTILE_IMMEDIATE_UPDATE);
		turnstile_update_inheritor_complete(wq->wq_turnstile,
				TURNSTILE_INTERLOCK_HELD);
	});
}

static void
workq_push_idle_thread(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth)
{
	uint64_t now = mach_absolute_time();

	uth->uu_workq_flags &= ~UT_WORKQ_RUNNING;
	if ((uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
		wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled--;
	}
	TAILQ_REMOVE(&wq->wq_thrunlist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
	wq->wq_threads_scheduled--;

	if (wq->wq_creator == uth) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_creator_select, wq, 3, 0,
				uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.yields, 0);
		wq->wq_creator = NULL;
		if (wq->wq_reqcount) {
			workq_turnstile_update_inheritor(wq, wq, TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_WORKQ);
		} else {
			workq_turnstile_update_inheritor(wq, TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_NULL, 0);
		}
		if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_NEW) {
			TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(&wq->wq_thnewlist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
			wq->wq_thidlecount++;
			return;
		}
	} else {
		_wq_thactive_dec(wq, uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket);
		wq->wq_thscheduled_count[_wq_bucket(uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket)]--;
		assert(!(uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_NEW));
		uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_IDLE_CLEANUP;
	}

	uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.idle_stamp = now;

	struct uthread *oldest = workq_oldest_killable_idle_thread(wq);
	uint16_t cur_idle = wq->wq_thidlecount;

	if (cur_idle >= wq_max_constrained_threads ||
			(wq->wq_thdying_count == 0 && oldest &&
			workq_should_kill_idle_thread(wq, oldest, now))) {
		/*
		 * Immediately kill threads if we have too may of them.
		 *
		 * And swap "place" with the oldest one we'd have woken up.
		 * This is a relatively desperate situation where we really
		 * need to kill threads quickly and it's best to kill
		 * the one that's currently on core than context switching.
		 */
		if (oldest) {
			oldest->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.idle_stamp = now;
			TAILQ_REMOVE(&wq->wq_thidlelist, oldest, uu_workq_entry);
			TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD(&wq->wq_thidlelist, oldest, uu_workq_entry);
		}

		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_terminate | DBG_FUNC_START,
				wq, cur_idle, 0, 0, 0);
		wq->wq_thdying_count++;
		uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_DYING;
		uth->uu_workq_flags &= ~UT_WORKQ_IDLE_CLEANUP;
		workq_unpark_for_death_and_unlock(p, wq, uth, 0);
		__builtin_unreachable();
	}

	struct uthread *tail = TAILQ_LAST(&wq->wq_thidlelist, workq_uthread_head);

	cur_idle += 1;
	wq->wq_thidlecount = cur_idle;

	if (cur_idle >= wq_death_max_load && tail &&
			tail->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.has_stack) {
		uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.has_stack = false;
		TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(&wq->wq_thidlelist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
	} else {
		uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.has_stack = true;
		TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD(&wq->wq_thidlelist, uth, uu_workq_entry);
	}

	if (!tail) {
		uint64_t delay = workq_kill_delay_for_idle_thread(wq);
		workq_death_call_schedule(wq, now + delay);
	}
}

#pragma mark thread requests

static inline int
workq_priority_for_req(workq_threadreq_t req)
{
	thread_qos_t qos = req->tr_qos;

	if (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WL_OUTSIDE_QOS) {
		workq_threadreq_param_t trp = kqueue_threadreq_workloop_param(req);
		assert(trp.trp_flags & TRP_PRIORITY);
		return trp.trp_pri;
	}
	return thread_workq_pri_for_qos(qos);
}

static inline struct priority_queue *
workq_priority_queue_for_req(struct workqueue *wq, workq_threadreq_t req)
{
	if (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WL_OUTSIDE_QOS) {
		return &wq->wq_special_queue;
	} else if (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) {
		return &wq->wq_overcommit_queue;
	} else {
		return &wq->wq_constrained_queue;
	}
}

/*
 * returns true if the the enqueued request is the highest priority item
 * in its priority queue.
 */
static bool
workq_threadreq_enqueue(struct workqueue *wq, workq_threadreq_t req)
{
	assert(req->tr_state == TR_STATE_NEW);

	req->tr_state = TR_STATE_QUEUED;
	wq->wq_reqcount += req->tr_count;

	if (req->tr_qos == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
		assert(wq->wq_event_manager_threadreq == NULL);
		assert(req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_KEVENT);
		assert(req->tr_count == 1);
		wq->wq_event_manager_threadreq = req;
		return true;
	}
	if (priority_queue_insert(workq_priority_queue_for_req(wq, req),
			&req->tr_entry, workq_priority_for_req(req),
			PRIORITY_QUEUE_SCHED_PRI_MAX_HEAP_COMPARE)) {
		if ((req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
			_wq_thactive_refresh_best_constrained_req_qos(wq);
		}
		return true;
	}
	return false;
}

/*
 * returns true if the the dequeued request was the highest priority item
 * in its priority queue.
 */
static bool
workq_threadreq_dequeue(struct workqueue *wq, workq_threadreq_t req)
{
	wq->wq_reqcount--;

	if (--req->tr_count == 0) {
		if (req->tr_qos == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
			assert(wq->wq_event_manager_threadreq == req);
			assert(req->tr_count == 0);
			wq->wq_event_manager_threadreq = NULL;
			return true;
		}
		if (priority_queue_remove(workq_priority_queue_for_req(wq, req),
				&req->tr_entry, PRIORITY_QUEUE_SCHED_PRI_MAX_HEAP_COMPARE)) {
			if ((req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
				_wq_thactive_refresh_best_constrained_req_qos(wq);
			}
			return true;
		}
	}
	return false;
}

static void
workq_threadreq_destroy(proc_t p, workq_threadreq_t req)
{
	req->tr_state = TR_STATE_IDLE;
	if (req->tr_flags & (TR_FLAG_WORKLOOP | TR_FLAG_KEVENT)) {
		kqueue_threadreq_cancel(p, req);
	} else {
		zfree(workq_zone_threadreq, req);
	}
}

/*
 * Mark a thread request as complete.  At this point, it is treated as owned by
 * the submitting subsystem and you should assume it could be freed.
 *
 * Called with the workqueue lock held.
 */
static void
workq_threadreq_bind_and_unlock(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq,
		workq_threadreq_t req, struct uthread *uth)
{
	uint8_t tr_flags = req->tr_flags;
	bool needs_commit = false;
	int creator_flags = 0;

	wq->wq_fulfilled++;

	if (req->tr_state == TR_STATE_QUEUED) {
		workq_threadreq_dequeue(wq, req);
		creator_flags = WORKQ_THREADREQ_CAN_CREATE_THREADS;
	}

	if (wq->wq_creator == uth) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_creator_select, wq, 4, 0,
				uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.yields, 0);
		creator_flags = WORKQ_THREADREQ_CAN_CREATE_THREADS |
				WORKQ_THREADREQ_CREATOR_TRANSFER;
		wq->wq_creator = NULL;
		_wq_thactive_inc(wq, req->tr_qos);
		wq->wq_thscheduled_count[_wq_bucket(req->tr_qos)]++;
	} else if (uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket != req->tr_qos) {
		_wq_thactive_move(wq, uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket, req->tr_qos);
	}
	workq_thread_reset_pri(wq, uth, req);

	if (tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) {
		if ((uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
			uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT;
			wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled--;
		}
	} else {
		if ((uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT) != 0) {
			uth->uu_workq_flags &= ~UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT;
			wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled++;
		}
	}

	if (tr_flags & (TR_FLAG_KEVENT | TR_FLAG_WORKLOOP)) {
		if (req->tr_state == TR_STATE_NEW) {
			/*
			 * We're called from workq_kern_threadreq_initiate()
			 * due to an unbind, with the kq req held.
			 */
			assert(!creator_flags);
			req->tr_state = TR_STATE_IDLE;
			kqueue_threadreq_bind(p, req, uth->uu_thread, 0);
		} else {
			assert(req->tr_count == 0);
			workq_perform_turnstile_operation_locked(wq, ^{
				kqueue_threadreq_bind_prepost(p, req, uth->uu_thread);
			});
			needs_commit = true;
		}
		req = NULL;
	} else if (req->tr_count > 0) {
		req = NULL;
	}

	if (creator_flags) {
		/* This can drop the workqueue lock, and take it again */
		workq_schedule_creator(p, wq, creator_flags);
	}

	workq_unlock(wq);

	if (req) {
		zfree(workq_zone_threadreq, req);
	}
	if (needs_commit) {
		kqueue_threadreq_bind_commit(p, uth->uu_thread);
	}

	/*
	 * Run Thread, Run!
	 */
	uint32_t upcall_flags = WQ_FLAG_THREAD_NEWSPI;
	if (uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
		upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_EVENT_MANAGER;
	} else if (tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) {
		upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_OVERCOMMIT;
	}
	if (tr_flags & TR_FLAG_KEVENT) {
		upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_KEVENT;
	}
	if (tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WORKLOOP) {
		upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_WORKLOOP | WQ_FLAG_THREAD_KEVENT;
	}
	uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.upcall_flags = upcall_flags;
}

#pragma mark workqueue thread creation thread calls

static inline bool
workq_thread_call_prepost(struct workqueue *wq, uint32_t sched, uint32_t pend,
		uint32_t fail_mask)
{
	uint32_t old_flags, new_flags;

	os_atomic_rmw_loop(&wq->wq_flags, old_flags, new_flags, acquire, {
		if (__improbable(old_flags & (WQ_EXITING | sched | pend | fail_mask))) {
			os_atomic_rmw_loop_give_up(return false);
		}
		if (__improbable(old_flags & WQ_PROC_SUSPENDED)) {
			new_flags = old_flags | pend;
		} else {
			new_flags = old_flags | sched;
		}
	});

	return (old_flags & WQ_PROC_SUSPENDED) == 0;
}

#define WORKQ_SCHEDULE_DELAYED_THREAD_CREATION_RESTART 0x1

static bool
workq_schedule_delayed_thread_creation(struct workqueue *wq, int flags)
{
	assert(!preemption_enabled());

	if (!workq_thread_call_prepost(wq, WQ_DELAYED_CALL_SCHEDULED,
			WQ_DELAYED_CALL_PENDED, WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_PENDED |
			WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_SCHEDULED)) {
		return false;
	}

	uint64_t now = mach_absolute_time();

	if (flags & WORKQ_SCHEDULE_DELAYED_THREAD_CREATION_RESTART) {
		/* do not change the window */
	} else if (now - wq->wq_thread_call_last_run <= wq->wq_timer_interval) {
		wq->wq_timer_interval *= 2;
		if (wq->wq_timer_interval > wq_max_timer_interval.abstime) {
			wq->wq_timer_interval = wq_max_timer_interval.abstime;
		}
	} else if (now - wq->wq_thread_call_last_run > 2 * wq->wq_timer_interval) {
		wq->wq_timer_interval /= 2;
		if (wq->wq_timer_interval < wq_stalled_window.abstime) {
			wq->wq_timer_interval = wq_stalled_window.abstime;
		}
	}

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_start_add_timer, wq, wq->wq_reqcount,
			_wq_flags(wq), wq->wq_timer_interval, 0);

	thread_call_t call = wq->wq_delayed_call;
	uintptr_t arg = WQ_DELAYED_CALL_SCHEDULED;
	uint64_t deadline = now + wq->wq_timer_interval;
	if (thread_call_enter1_delayed(call, (void *)arg, deadline)) {
		panic("delayed_call was already enqueued");
	}
	return true;
}

static void
workq_schedule_immediate_thread_creation(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	assert(!preemption_enabled());

	if (workq_thread_call_prepost(wq, WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_SCHEDULED,
			WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_PENDED, 0)) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_start_add_timer, wq, wq->wq_reqcount,
				_wq_flags(wq), 0, 0);

		uintptr_t arg = WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_SCHEDULED;
		if (thread_call_enter1(wq->wq_immediate_call, (void *)arg)) {
			panic("immediate_call was already enqueued");
		}
	}
}

void
workq_proc_suspended(struct proc *p)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);

	if (wq) os_atomic_or(&wq->wq_flags, WQ_PROC_SUSPENDED, relaxed);
}

void
workq_proc_resumed(struct proc *p)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	uint32_t wq_flags;

	if (!wq) return;

	wq_flags = os_atomic_and_orig(&wq->wq_flags, ~(WQ_PROC_SUSPENDED |
			WQ_DELAYED_CALL_PENDED | WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_PENDED), relaxed);
	if ((wq_flags & WQ_EXITING) == 0) {
		disable_preemption();
		if (wq_flags & WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_PENDED) {
			workq_schedule_immediate_thread_creation(wq);
		} else if (wq_flags & WQ_DELAYED_CALL_PENDED) {
			workq_schedule_delayed_thread_creation(wq,
					WORKQ_SCHEDULE_DELAYED_THREAD_CREATION_RESTART);
		}
		enable_preemption();
	}
}

/**
 * returns whether lastblocked_tsp is within wq_stalled_window usecs of now
 */
static bool
workq_thread_is_busy(uint64_t now, _Atomic uint64_t *lastblocked_tsp)
{
	uint64_t lastblocked_ts = os_atomic_load(lastblocked_tsp, relaxed);
	if (now <= lastblocked_ts) {
		/*
		 * Because the update of the timestamp when a thread blocks
		 * isn't serialized against us looking at it (i.e. we don't hold
		 * the workq lock), it's possible to have a timestamp that matches
		 * the current time or that even looks to be in the future relative
		 * to when we grabbed the current time...
		 *
		 * Just treat this as a busy thread since it must have just blocked.
		 */
		return true;
	}
	return (now - lastblocked_ts) < wq_stalled_window.abstime;
}

static void
workq_add_new_threads_call(void *_p, void *flags)
{
	proc_t p = _p;
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	uint32_t my_flag = (uint32_t)(uintptr_t)flags;

	/*
	 * workq_exit() will set the workqueue to NULL before
	 * it cancels thread calls.
	 */
	if (!wq) return;

	assert((my_flag == WQ_DELAYED_CALL_SCHEDULED) ||
			(my_flag == WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_SCHEDULED));

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_add_timer | DBG_FUNC_START, wq, _wq_flags(wq),
			wq->wq_nthreads, wq->wq_thidlecount, 0);

	workq_lock_spin(wq);

	wq->wq_thread_call_last_run = mach_absolute_time();
	os_atomic_and(&wq->wq_flags, ~my_flag, release);

	/* This can drop the workqueue lock, and take it again */
	workq_schedule_creator(p, wq, WORKQ_THREADREQ_CAN_CREATE_THREADS);

	workq_unlock(wq);

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_add_timer | DBG_FUNC_END, wq, 0,
			wq->wq_nthreads, wq->wq_thidlecount, 0);
}

#pragma mark thread state tracking

static void
workq_sched_callback(int type, thread_t thread)
{
	struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(thread);
	proc_t proc = get_bsdtask_info(get_threadtask(thread));
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(proc);
	thread_qos_t req_qos, qos = uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket;
	wq_thactive_t old_thactive;
	bool start_timer = false;

	if (qos == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
		return;
	}

	switch (type) {
	case SCHED_CALL_BLOCK:
		old_thactive = _wq_thactive_dec(wq, qos);
		req_qos = WQ_THACTIVE_BEST_CONSTRAINED_REQ_QOS(old_thactive);

		/*
		 * Remember the timestamp of the last thread that blocked in this
		 * bucket, it used used by admission checks to ignore one thread
		 * being inactive if this timestamp is recent enough.
		 *
		 * If we collide with another thread trying to update the
		 * last_blocked (really unlikely since another thread would have to
		 * get scheduled and then block after we start down this path), it's
		 * not a problem.  Either timestamp is adequate, so no need to retry
		 */
		os_atomic_store(&wq->wq_lastblocked_ts[_wq_bucket(qos)],
				thread_last_run_time(thread), relaxed);

		if (req_qos == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED) {
			/*
			 * No pending request at the moment we could unblock, move on.
			 */
		} else if (qos < req_qos) {
			/*
			 * The blocking thread is at a lower QoS than the highest currently
			 * pending constrained request, nothing has to be redriven
			 */
		} else {
			uint32_t max_busycount, old_req_count;
			old_req_count = _wq_thactive_aggregate_downto_qos(wq, old_thactive,
					req_qos, NULL, &max_busycount);
			/*
			 * If it is possible that may_start_constrained_thread had refused
			 * admission due to being over the max concurrency, we may need to
			 * spin up a new thread.
			 *
			 * We take into account the maximum number of busy threads
			 * that can affect may_start_constrained_thread as looking at the
			 * actual number may_start_constrained_thread will see is racy.
			 *
			 * IOW at NCPU = 4, for IN (req_qos = 1), if the old req count is
			 * between NCPU (4) and NCPU - 2 (2) we need to redrive.
			 */
			uint32_t conc = wq_max_parallelism[_wq_bucket(qos)];
			if (old_req_count <= conc && conc <= old_req_count + max_busycount) {
				start_timer = workq_schedule_delayed_thread_creation(wq, 0);
			}
		}
		if (__improbable(kdebug_enable)) {
			__unused uint32_t old = _wq_thactive_aggregate_downto_qos(wq,
					old_thactive, qos, NULL, NULL);
			WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_block | DBG_FUNC_START, wq,
					old - 1, qos | (req_qos << 8),
					wq->wq_reqcount << 1 | start_timer, 0);
		}
		break;

	case SCHED_CALL_UNBLOCK:
		/*
		 * we cannot take the workqueue_lock here...
		 * an UNBLOCK can occur from a timer event which
		 * is run from an interrupt context... if the workqueue_lock
		 * is already held by this processor, we'll deadlock...
		 * the thread lock for the thread being UNBLOCKED
		 * is also held
		 */
		old_thactive = _wq_thactive_inc(wq, qos);
		if (__improbable(kdebug_enable)) {
			__unused uint32_t old = _wq_thactive_aggregate_downto_qos(wq,
					old_thactive, qos, NULL, NULL);
			req_qos = WQ_THACTIVE_BEST_CONSTRAINED_REQ_QOS(old_thactive);
			WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_block | DBG_FUNC_END, wq,
					old + 1, qos | (req_qos << 8),
					wq->wq_threads_scheduled, 0);
		}
		break;
	}
}

#pragma mark workq lifecycle

void
workq_reference(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	os_ref_retain(&wq->wq_refcnt);
}

void
workq_destroy(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	struct turnstile *ts;

	turnstile_complete((uintptr_t)wq, &wq->wq_turnstile, &ts);
	assert(ts);
	turnstile_cleanup();
	turnstile_deallocate(ts);

	lck_spin_destroy(&wq->wq_lock, workq_lck_grp);
	zfree(workq_zone_workqueue, wq);
}

static void
workq_deallocate(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	if (os_ref_release_relaxed(&wq->wq_refcnt) == 0) {
		workq_destroy(wq);
	}
}

void
workq_deallocate_safe(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	if (__improbable(os_ref_release_relaxed(&wq->wq_refcnt) == 0)) {
		workq_deallocate_enqueue(wq);
	}
}

/**
 * Setup per-process state for the workqueue.
 */
int
workq_open(struct proc *p, __unused struct workq_open_args *uap,
		__unused int32_t *retval)
{
	struct workqueue *wq;
	int error = 0;

	if ((p->p_lflag & P_LREGISTER) == 0) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	if (wq_init_constrained_limit) {
		uint32_t limit, num_cpus = ml_get_max_cpus();

		/*
		 * set up the limit for the constrained pool
		 * this is a virtual pool in that we don't
		 * maintain it on a separate idle and run list
		 */
		limit = num_cpus * WORKQUEUE_CONSTRAINED_FACTOR;

		if (limit > wq_max_constrained_threads)
			wq_max_constrained_threads = limit;

		if (wq_max_threads > WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_HALF) {
			wq_max_threads = WQ_THACTIVE_BUCKET_HALF;
		}
		if (wq_max_threads > CONFIG_THREAD_MAX - 20) {
			wq_max_threads = CONFIG_THREAD_MAX - 20;
		}

		wq_death_max_load = (uint16_t)fls(num_cpus) + 1;

		for (thread_qos_t qos = WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MIN; qos <= WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MAX; qos++) {
			wq_max_parallelism[_wq_bucket(qos)] =
					qos_max_parallelism(qos, QOS_PARALLELISM_COUNT_LOGICAL);
		}

		wq_init_constrained_limit = 0;
	}

	if (proc_get_wqptr(p) == NULL) {
		if (proc_init_wqptr_or_wait(p) == FALSE) {
			assert(proc_get_wqptr(p) != NULL);
			goto out;
		}

		wq = (struct workqueue *)zalloc(workq_zone_workqueue);
		bzero(wq, sizeof(struct workqueue));

		os_ref_init_count(&wq->wq_refcnt, &workq_refgrp, 1);

		// Start the event manager at the priority hinted at by the policy engine
		thread_qos_t mgr_priority_hint = task_get_default_manager_qos(current_task());
		pthread_priority_t pp = _pthread_priority_make_from_thread_qos(mgr_priority_hint, 0, 0);
		wq->wq_event_manager_priority = (uint32_t)pp;
		wq->wq_timer_interval = wq_stalled_window.abstime;
		wq->wq_proc = p;
		turnstile_prepare((uintptr_t)wq, &wq->wq_turnstile, turnstile_alloc(),
				TURNSTILE_WORKQS);

		TAILQ_INIT(&wq->wq_thrunlist);
		TAILQ_INIT(&wq->wq_thnewlist);
		TAILQ_INIT(&wq->wq_thidlelist);
		priority_queue_init(&wq->wq_overcommit_queue,
				PRIORITY_QUEUE_BUILTIN_MAX_HEAP);
		priority_queue_init(&wq->wq_constrained_queue,
				PRIORITY_QUEUE_BUILTIN_MAX_HEAP);
		priority_queue_init(&wq->wq_special_queue,
				PRIORITY_QUEUE_BUILTIN_MAX_HEAP);

		wq->wq_delayed_call = thread_call_allocate_with_options(
				workq_add_new_threads_call, p, THREAD_CALL_PRIORITY_KERNEL,
				THREAD_CALL_OPTIONS_ONCE);
		wq->wq_immediate_call = thread_call_allocate_with_options(
				workq_add_new_threads_call, p, THREAD_CALL_PRIORITY_KERNEL,
				THREAD_CALL_OPTIONS_ONCE);
		wq->wq_death_call = thread_call_allocate_with_options(
				workq_kill_old_threads_call, wq,
				THREAD_CALL_PRIORITY_USER, THREAD_CALL_OPTIONS_ONCE);

		lck_spin_init(&wq->wq_lock, workq_lck_grp, workq_lck_attr);

		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_create | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq,
				VM_KERNEL_ADDRHIDE(wq), 0, 0, 0);
		proc_set_wqptr(p, wq);
	}
out:

	return error;
}

/*
 * Routine:	workq_mark_exiting
 *
 * Function:	Mark the work queue such that new threads will not be added to the
 *		work queue after we return.
 *
 * Conditions:	Called against the current process.
 */
void
workq_mark_exiting(struct proc *p)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	uint32_t wq_flags;
	workq_threadreq_t mgr_req;

	if (!wq) return;

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_pthread_exit|DBG_FUNC_START, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);

	workq_lock_spin(wq);

	wq_flags = os_atomic_or_orig(&wq->wq_flags, WQ_EXITING, relaxed);
	if (__improbable(wq_flags & WQ_EXITING)) {
		panic("workq_mark_exiting called twice");
	}

	/*
	 * Opportunistically try to cancel thread calls that are likely in flight.
	 * workq_exit() will do the proper cleanup.
	 */
	if (wq_flags & WQ_IMMEDIATE_CALL_SCHEDULED) {
		thread_call_cancel(wq->wq_immediate_call);
	}
	if (wq_flags & WQ_DELAYED_CALL_SCHEDULED) {
		thread_call_cancel(wq->wq_delayed_call);
	}
	if (wq_flags & WQ_DEATH_CALL_SCHEDULED) {
		thread_call_cancel(wq->wq_death_call);
	}

	mgr_req = wq->wq_event_manager_threadreq;
	wq->wq_event_manager_threadreq = NULL;
	wq->wq_reqcount = 0; /* workq_schedule_creator must not look at queues */
	workq_turnstile_update_inheritor(wq, NULL, 0);

	workq_unlock(wq);

	if (mgr_req) {
		kqueue_threadreq_cancel(p, mgr_req);
	}
	/*
	 * No one touches the priority queues once WQ_EXITING is set.
	 * It is hence safe to do the tear down without holding any lock.
	 */
	priority_queue_destroy(&wq->wq_overcommit_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry, ^(void *e){
		workq_threadreq_destroy(p, e);
	});
	priority_queue_destroy(&wq->wq_constrained_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry, ^(void *e){
		workq_threadreq_destroy(p, e);
	});
	priority_queue_destroy(&wq->wq_special_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry, ^(void *e){
		workq_threadreq_destroy(p, e);
	});

	WQ_TRACE(TRACE_wq_pthread_exit|DBG_FUNC_END, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);
}

/*
 * Routine:	workq_exit
 *
 * Function:	clean up the work queue structure(s) now that there are no threads
 *		left running inside the work queue (except possibly current_thread).
 *
 * Conditions:	Called by the last thread in the process.
 *		Called against current process.
 */
void
workq_exit(struct proc *p)
{
	struct workqueue *wq;
	struct uthread *uth, *tmp;

	wq = os_atomic_xchg(&p->p_wqptr, NULL, relaxed);
	if (wq != NULL) {
		thread_t th = current_thread();

		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_workqueue_exit|DBG_FUNC_START, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);

		if (thread_get_tag(th) & THREAD_TAG_WORKQUEUE) {
			/*
			 * <rdar://problem/40111515> Make sure we will no longer call the
			 * sched call, if we ever block this thread, which the cancel_wait
			 * below can do.
			 */
			thread_sched_call(th, NULL);
		}

		/*
		 * Thread calls are always scheduled by the proc itself or under the
		 * workqueue spinlock if WQ_EXITING is not yet set.
		 *
		 * Either way, when this runs, the proc has no threads left beside
		 * the one running this very code, so we know no thread call can be
		 * dispatched anymore.
		 */
		thread_call_cancel_wait(wq->wq_delayed_call);
		thread_call_cancel_wait(wq->wq_immediate_call);
		thread_call_cancel_wait(wq->wq_death_call);
		thread_call_free(wq->wq_delayed_call);
		thread_call_free(wq->wq_immediate_call);
		thread_call_free(wq->wq_death_call);

		/*
		 * Clean up workqueue data structures for threads that exited and
		 * didn't get a chance to clean up after themselves.
		 *
		 * idle/new threads should have been interrupted and died on their own
		 */
		TAILQ_FOREACH_SAFE(uth, &wq->wq_thrunlist, uu_workq_entry, tmp) {
			thread_sched_call(uth->uu_thread, NULL);
			thread_deallocate(uth->uu_thread);
		}
		assert(TAILQ_EMPTY(&wq->wq_thnewlist));
		assert(TAILQ_EMPTY(&wq->wq_thidlelist));

		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_destroy | DBG_FUNC_END, wq,
				VM_KERNEL_ADDRHIDE(wq), 0, 0, 0);

		workq_deallocate(wq);

		WQ_TRACE(TRACE_wq_workqueue_exit|DBG_FUNC_END, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);
	}
}


#pragma mark bsd thread control

static bool
_pthread_priority_to_policy(pthread_priority_t priority,
		thread_qos_policy_data_t *data)
{
	data->qos_tier = _pthread_priority_thread_qos(priority);
	data->tier_importance = _pthread_priority_relpri(priority);
	if (data->qos_tier == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED || data->tier_importance > 0 ||
			data->tier_importance < THREAD_QOS_MIN_TIER_IMPORTANCE) {
		return false;
	}
	return true;
}

static int
bsdthread_set_self(proc_t p, thread_t th, pthread_priority_t priority,
		mach_port_name_t voucher, enum workq_set_self_flags flags)
{
	struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(th);
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);

	kern_return_t kr;
	int unbind_rv = 0, qos_rv = 0, voucher_rv = 0, fixedpri_rv = 0;
	bool is_wq_thread = (thread_get_tag(th) & THREAD_TAG_WORKQUEUE);

	if (flags & WORKQ_SET_SELF_WQ_KEVENT_UNBIND) {
		if (!is_wq_thread) {
			unbind_rv = EINVAL;
			goto qos;
		}

		if (uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
			unbind_rv = EINVAL;
			goto qos;
		}

		struct kqrequest *kqr = uth->uu_kqr_bound;
		if (kqr == NULL) {
			unbind_rv = EALREADY;
			goto qos;
		}

		if (kqr->kqr_state & KQR_WORKLOOP) {
			unbind_rv = EINVAL;
			goto qos;
		}

		kqueue_threadreq_unbind(p, uth->uu_kqr_bound);
	}

qos:
	if (flags & WORKQ_SET_SELF_QOS_FLAG) {
		thread_qos_policy_data_t new_policy;

		if (!_pthread_priority_to_policy(priority, &new_policy)) {
			qos_rv = EINVAL;
			goto voucher;
		}

		if (!is_wq_thread) {
			/*
			 * Threads opted out of QoS can't change QoS
			 */
			if (!thread_has_qos_policy(th)) {
				qos_rv = EPERM;
				goto voucher;
			}
		} else if (uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
			/*
			 * Workqueue manager threads can't change QoS
			 */
			qos_rv = EINVAL;
			goto voucher;
		} else {
			/*
			 * For workqueue threads, possibly adjust buckets and redrive thread
			 * requests.
			 */
			bool old_overcommit = uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT;
			bool new_overcommit = priority & _PTHREAD_PRIORITY_OVERCOMMIT_FLAG;
			struct uu_workq_policy old_pri, new_pri;
			bool force_run = false;

			workq_lock_spin(wq);

			if (old_overcommit != new_overcommit) {
				uth->uu_workq_flags ^= UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT;
				if (old_overcommit) {
					wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled++;
				} else if (wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled-- ==
						wq_max_constrained_threads) {
					force_run = true;
				}
			}

			old_pri = new_pri = uth->uu_workq_pri;
			new_pri.qos_req = new_policy.qos_tier;
			workq_thread_update_bucket(p, wq, uth, old_pri, new_pri, force_run);
			workq_unlock(wq);
		}

		kr = thread_policy_set_internal(th, THREAD_QOS_POLICY,
				(thread_policy_t)&new_policy, THREAD_QOS_POLICY_COUNT);
		if (kr != KERN_SUCCESS) {
			qos_rv = EINVAL;
		}
	}

voucher:
	if (flags & WORKQ_SET_SELF_VOUCHER_FLAG) {
		kr = thread_set_voucher_name(voucher);
		if (kr != KERN_SUCCESS) {
			voucher_rv = ENOENT;
			goto fixedpri;
		}
	}

fixedpri:
	if (qos_rv) goto done;
	if (flags & WORKQ_SET_SELF_FIXEDPRIORITY_FLAG) {
		thread_extended_policy_data_t extpol = {.timeshare = 0};

		if (is_wq_thread) {
			/* Not allowed on workqueue threads */
			fixedpri_rv = ENOTSUP;
			goto done;
		}

		kr = thread_policy_set_internal(th, THREAD_EXTENDED_POLICY,
				(thread_policy_t)&extpol, THREAD_EXTENDED_POLICY_COUNT);
		if (kr != KERN_SUCCESS) {
			fixedpri_rv = EINVAL;
			goto done;
		}
	} else if (flags & WORKQ_SET_SELF_TIMESHARE_FLAG) {
		thread_extended_policy_data_t extpol = {.timeshare = 1};

		if (is_wq_thread) {
			/* Not allowed on workqueue threads */
			fixedpri_rv = ENOTSUP;
			goto done;
		}

		kr = thread_policy_set_internal(th, THREAD_EXTENDED_POLICY,
				(thread_policy_t)&extpol, THREAD_EXTENDED_POLICY_COUNT);
		if (kr != KERN_SUCCESS) {
			fixedpri_rv = EINVAL;
			goto done;
		}
	}

done:
	if (qos_rv && voucher_rv) {
		/* Both failed, give that a unique error. */
		return EBADMSG;
	}

	if (unbind_rv) {
		return unbind_rv;
	}

	if (qos_rv) {
		return qos_rv;
	}

	if (voucher_rv) {
		return voucher_rv;
	}

	if (fixedpri_rv) {
		return fixedpri_rv;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int
bsdthread_add_explicit_override(proc_t p, mach_port_name_t kport,
		pthread_priority_t pp, user_addr_t resource)
{
	thread_qos_t qos = _pthread_priority_thread_qos(pp);
	if (qos == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	thread_t th = port_name_to_thread(kport);
	if (th == THREAD_NULL) {
		return ESRCH;
	}

	int rv = proc_thread_qos_add_override(p->task, th, 0, qos, TRUE,
			resource, THREAD_QOS_OVERRIDE_TYPE_PTHREAD_EXPLICIT_OVERRIDE);

	thread_deallocate(th);
	return rv;
}

static int
bsdthread_remove_explicit_override(proc_t p, mach_port_name_t kport,
		user_addr_t resource)
{
	thread_t th = port_name_to_thread(kport);
	if (th == THREAD_NULL) {
		return ESRCH;
	}

	int rv = proc_thread_qos_remove_override(p->task, th, 0, resource,
			THREAD_QOS_OVERRIDE_TYPE_PTHREAD_EXPLICIT_OVERRIDE);

	thread_deallocate(th);
	return rv;
}

static int
workq_thread_add_dispatch_override(proc_t p, mach_port_name_t kport,
		pthread_priority_t pp, user_addr_t ulock_addr)
{
	struct uu_workq_policy old_pri, new_pri;
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);

	thread_qos_t qos_override = _pthread_priority_thread_qos(pp);
	if (qos_override == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	thread_t thread = port_name_to_thread(kport);
	if (thread == THREAD_NULL) {
		return ESRCH;
	}

	struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(thread);
	if ((thread_get_tag(thread) & THREAD_TAG_WORKQUEUE) == 0) {
		thread_deallocate(thread);
		return EPERM;
	}

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_override_dispatch | DBG_FUNC_NONE,
			wq, thread_tid(thread), 1, pp, 0);

	thread_mtx_lock(thread);

	if (ulock_addr) {
		uint64_t val;
		int rc;
		/*
		 * Workaround lack of explicit support for 'no-fault copyin'
		 * <rdar://problem/24999882>, as disabling preemption prevents paging in
		 */
		disable_preemption();
		rc = copyin_word(ulock_addr, &val, sizeof(kport));
		enable_preemption();
		if (rc == 0 && ulock_owner_value_to_port_name((uint32_t)val) != kport) {
			goto out;
		}
	}

	workq_lock_spin(wq);

	old_pri = uth->uu_workq_pri;
	if (old_pri.qos_override >= qos_override) {
		/* Nothing to do */
	} else if (thread == current_thread()) {
		new_pri = old_pri;
		new_pri.qos_override = qos_override;
		workq_thread_update_bucket(p, wq, uth, old_pri, new_pri, false);
	} else {
		uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_override = qos_override;
		if (qos_override > workq_pri_override(old_pri)) {
			thread_set_workq_override(thread, qos_override);
		}
	}

	workq_unlock(wq);

out:
	thread_mtx_unlock(thread);
	thread_deallocate(thread);
	return 0;
}

static int
workq_thread_reset_dispatch_override(proc_t p, thread_t thread)
{
	struct uu_workq_policy old_pri, new_pri;
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(thread);

	if ((thread_get_tag(thread) & THREAD_TAG_WORKQUEUE) == 0) {
		return EPERM;
	}

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_override_reset | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);

	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	old_pri = new_pri = uth->uu_workq_pri;
	new_pri.qos_override = THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED;
	workq_thread_update_bucket(p, wq, uth, old_pri, new_pri, false);
	workq_unlock(wq);
	return 0;
}

static int
bsdthread_get_max_parallelism(thread_qos_t qos, unsigned long flags,
		int *retval)
{
	static_assert(QOS_PARALLELISM_COUNT_LOGICAL ==
			_PTHREAD_QOS_PARALLELISM_COUNT_LOGICAL, "logical");
	static_assert(QOS_PARALLELISM_REALTIME ==
			_PTHREAD_QOS_PARALLELISM_REALTIME, "realtime");

	if (flags & ~(QOS_PARALLELISM_REALTIME | QOS_PARALLELISM_COUNT_LOGICAL)) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	if (flags & QOS_PARALLELISM_REALTIME) {
		if (qos) {
			return EINVAL;
		}
	} else if (qos == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED || qos >= THREAD_QOS_LAST) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	*retval = qos_max_parallelism(qos, flags);
	return 0;
}

#define ENSURE_UNUSED(arg) \
		({ if ((arg) != 0) { return EINVAL; } })

int
bsdthread_ctl(struct proc *p, struct bsdthread_ctl_args *uap, int *retval)
{
	switch (uap->cmd) {
	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_QOS_OVERRIDE_START:
		return bsdthread_add_explicit_override(p, (mach_port_name_t)uap->arg1,
				(pthread_priority_t)uap->arg2, uap->arg3);
	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_QOS_OVERRIDE_END:
		ENSURE_UNUSED(uap->arg3);
		return bsdthread_remove_explicit_override(p, (mach_port_name_t)uap->arg1,
				(user_addr_t)uap->arg2);

	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_QOS_OVERRIDE_DISPATCH:
		return workq_thread_add_dispatch_override(p, (mach_port_name_t)uap->arg1,
				(pthread_priority_t)uap->arg2, uap->arg3);
	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_QOS_OVERRIDE_RESET:
		return workq_thread_reset_dispatch_override(p, current_thread());

	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_SET_SELF:
		return bsdthread_set_self(p, current_thread(),
				(pthread_priority_t)uap->arg1, (mach_port_name_t)uap->arg2,
				(enum workq_set_self_flags)uap->arg3);

	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_QOS_MAX_PARALLELISM:
		ENSURE_UNUSED(uap->arg3);
		return bsdthread_get_max_parallelism((thread_qos_t)uap->arg1,
				(unsigned long)uap->arg2, retval);

	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_SET_QOS:
	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_QOS_DISPATCH_ASYNCHRONOUS_OVERRIDE_ADD:
	case BSDTHREAD_CTL_QOS_DISPATCH_ASYNCHRONOUS_OVERRIDE_RESET:
		/* no longer supported */
		return ENOTSUP;

	default:
		return EINVAL;
	}
}

#pragma mark workqueue thread manipulation

static void __dead2
workq_select_threadreq_or_park_and_unlock(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq,
		struct uthread *uth);

static void workq_setup_and_run(proc_t p, struct uthread *uth, int flags) __dead2;

#if KDEBUG_LEVEL >= KDEBUG_LEVEL_STANDARD
static inline uint64_t
workq_trace_req_id(workq_threadreq_t req)
{
	struct kqworkloop *kqwl;
	if (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WORKLOOP) {
		kqwl = __container_of(req, struct kqworkloop, kqwl_request.kqr_req);
		return kqwl->kqwl_dynamicid;
	}

	return VM_KERNEL_ADDRHIDE(req);
}
#endif

/**
 * Entry point for libdispatch to ask for threads
 */
static int
workq_reqthreads(struct proc *p, uint32_t reqcount, pthread_priority_t pp)
{
	thread_qos_t qos = _pthread_priority_thread_qos(pp);
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	uint32_t unpaced, upcall_flags = WQ_FLAG_THREAD_NEWSPI;

	if (wq == NULL || reqcount <= 0 || reqcount > UINT16_MAX ||
			qos == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_wqops_reqthreads | DBG_FUNC_NONE,
			wq, reqcount, pp, 0, 0);

	workq_threadreq_t req = zalloc(workq_zone_threadreq);
	priority_queue_entry_init(&req->tr_entry);
	req->tr_state = TR_STATE_NEW;
	req->tr_flags = 0;
	req->tr_qos   = qos;

	if (pp & _PTHREAD_PRIORITY_OVERCOMMIT_FLAG) {
		req->tr_flags |= TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT;
		upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_OVERCOMMIT;
	}

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_request_initiate | DBG_FUNC_NONE,
			wq, workq_trace_req_id(req), req->tr_qos, reqcount, 0);

	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	do {
		if (_wq_exiting(wq)) {
			goto exiting;
		}

		/*
		 * When userspace is asking for parallelism, wakeup up to (reqcount - 1)
		 * threads without pacing, to inform the scheduler of that workload.
		 *
		 * The last requests, or the ones that failed the admission checks are
		 * enqueued and go through the regular creator codepath.
		 *
		 * If there aren't enough threads, add one, but re-evaluate everything
		 * as conditions may now have changed.
		 */
		if (reqcount > 1 && (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
			unpaced = workq_constrained_allowance(wq, qos, NULL, false);
			if (unpaced >= reqcount - 1) {
				unpaced = reqcount - 1;
			}
		} else {
			unpaced = reqcount - 1;
		}

		/*
		 * This path does not currently handle custom workloop parameters
		 * when creating threads for parallelism.
		 */
		assert(!(req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WL_PARAMS));

		/*
		 * This is a trimmed down version of workq_threadreq_bind_and_unlock()
		 */
		while (unpaced > 0 && wq->wq_thidlecount) {
			struct uthread *uth = workq_pop_idle_thread(wq);

			_wq_thactive_inc(wq, qos);
			wq->wq_thscheduled_count[_wq_bucket(qos)]++;
			workq_thread_reset_pri(wq, uth, req);
			wq->wq_fulfilled++;

			uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_EARLY_BOUND;
			if ((req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
				uth->uu_workq_flags &= ~UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT;
				wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled++;
			}
			uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.upcall_flags = upcall_flags;
			uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.thread_request = req;
			workq_thread_wakeup(uth);
			unpaced--;
			reqcount--;
		}
	} while (unpaced && wq->wq_nthreads < wq_max_threads &&
			workq_add_new_idle_thread(p, wq));

	if (_wq_exiting(wq)) {
		goto exiting;
	}

	req->tr_count = reqcount;
	if (workq_threadreq_enqueue(wq, req)) {
		/* This can drop the workqueue lock, and take it again */
		workq_schedule_creator(p, wq, WORKQ_THREADREQ_CAN_CREATE_THREADS);
	}
	workq_unlock(wq);
	return 0;

exiting:
	workq_unlock(wq);
	zfree(workq_zone_threadreq, req);
	return ECANCELED;
}

bool
workq_kern_threadreq_initiate(struct proc *p, struct kqrequest *kqr,
		struct turnstile *workloop_ts, thread_qos_t qos, int flags)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr_fast(p);
	workq_threadreq_t req = &kqr->kqr_req;
	struct uthread *uth = NULL;
	uint8_t tr_flags = 0;

	if (kqr->kqr_state & KQR_WORKLOOP) {
		tr_flags = TR_FLAG_WORKLOOP;

		workq_threadreq_param_t trp = kqueue_threadreq_workloop_param(req);
		if (trp.trp_flags & TRP_PRIORITY) {
			tr_flags |= TR_FLAG_WL_OUTSIDE_QOS;
			qos = thread_workq_qos_for_pri(trp.trp_pri);
			if (qos == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED) {
				qos = WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_ABOVEUI;
			}
		}
		if (trp.trp_flags) {
			tr_flags |= TR_FLAG_WL_PARAMS;
		}
	} else {
		tr_flags = TR_FLAG_KEVENT;
	}
	if (qos != WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER &&
			(kqr->kqr_state & KQR_THOVERCOMMIT)) {
		tr_flags |= TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT;
	}

	assert(req->tr_state == TR_STATE_IDLE);
	priority_queue_entry_init(&req->tr_entry);
	req->tr_count = 1;
	req->tr_state = TR_STATE_NEW;
	req->tr_flags = tr_flags;
	req->tr_qos   = qos;

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_request_initiate | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq,
			workq_trace_req_id(req), qos, 1, 0);

	if (flags & WORKQ_THREADREQ_ATTEMPT_REBIND) {
		/*
		 * we're called back synchronously from the context of
		 * kqueue_threadreq_unbind from within workq_thread_return()
		 * we can try to match up this thread with this request !
		 */
		uth = current_uthread();
		assert(uth->uu_kqr_bound == NULL);
	}

	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	if (_wq_exiting(wq)) {
		workq_unlock(wq);
		return false;
	}

	if (uth && workq_threadreq_admissible(wq, uth, req)) {
		assert(uth != wq->wq_creator);
		workq_threadreq_bind_and_unlock(p, wq, req, uth);
	} else {
		if (workloop_ts) {
			workq_perform_turnstile_operation_locked(wq, ^{
				turnstile_update_inheritor(workloop_ts, wq->wq_turnstile,
						TURNSTILE_IMMEDIATE_UPDATE | TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_TURNSTILE);
				turnstile_update_inheritor_complete(workloop_ts,
						TURNSTILE_INTERLOCK_HELD);
			});
		}
		if (workq_threadreq_enqueue(wq, req)) {
			workq_schedule_creator(p, wq, flags);
		}
		workq_unlock(wq);
	}

	return true;
}

void
workq_kern_threadreq_modify(struct proc *p, struct kqrequest *kqr,
		thread_qos_t qos, int flags)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr_fast(p);
	workq_threadreq_t req = &kqr->kqr_req;
	bool change_overcommit = false;

	if (req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WL_OUTSIDE_QOS) {
		/* Requests outside-of-QoS shouldn't accept modify operations */
		return;
	}

	workq_lock_spin(wq);

	assert(req->tr_qos != WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER);
	assert(req->tr_flags & (TR_FLAG_KEVENT | TR_FLAG_WORKLOOP));

	if (req->tr_state == TR_STATE_BINDING) {
		kqueue_threadreq_bind(p, req, req->tr_binding_thread, 0);
		workq_unlock(wq);
		return;
	}

	change_overcommit = (bool)(kqr->kqr_state & KQR_THOVERCOMMIT) !=
			(bool)(req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT);

	if (_wq_exiting(wq) || (req->tr_qos == qos && !change_overcommit)) {
		workq_unlock(wq);
		return;
	}

	assert(req->tr_count == 1);
	if (req->tr_state != TR_STATE_QUEUED) {
		panic("Invalid thread request (%p) state %d", req, req->tr_state);
	}

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_request_modify | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq,
			workq_trace_req_id(req), qos, 0, 0);

	struct priority_queue *pq = workq_priority_queue_for_req(wq, req);
	workq_threadreq_t req_max;

	/*
	 * Stage 1: Dequeue the request from its priority queue.
	 *
	 * If we dequeue the root item of the constrained priority queue,
	 * maintain the best constrained request qos invariant.
	 */
	if (priority_queue_remove(pq, &req->tr_entry,
			PRIORITY_QUEUE_SCHED_PRI_MAX_HEAP_COMPARE)) {
		if ((req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
			_wq_thactive_refresh_best_constrained_req_qos(wq);
		}
	}

	/*
	 * Stage 2: Apply changes to the thread request
	 *
	 * If the item will not become the root of the priority queue it belongs to,
	 * then we need to wait in line, just enqueue and return quickly.
	 */
	if (__improbable(change_overcommit)) {
		req->tr_flags ^= TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT;
		pq = workq_priority_queue_for_req(wq, req);
	}
	req->tr_qos = qos;

	req_max = priority_queue_max(pq, struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry);
	if (req_max && req_max->tr_qos >= qos) {
		priority_queue_insert(pq, &req->tr_entry, workq_priority_for_req(req),
				PRIORITY_QUEUE_SCHED_PRI_MAX_HEAP_COMPARE);
		workq_unlock(wq);
		return;
	}

	/*
	 * Stage 3: Reevaluate whether we should run the thread request.
	 *
	 * Pretend the thread request is new again:
	 * - adjust wq_reqcount to not count it anymore.
	 * - make its state TR_STATE_NEW (so that workq_threadreq_bind_and_unlock
	 *   properly attempts a synchronous bind)
	 */
	wq->wq_reqcount--;
	req->tr_state = TR_STATE_NEW;
	if (workq_threadreq_enqueue(wq, req)) {
		workq_schedule_creator(p, wq, flags);
	}
	workq_unlock(wq);
}

void
workq_kern_threadreq_lock(struct proc *p)
{
	workq_lock_spin(proc_get_wqptr_fast(p));
}

void
workq_kern_threadreq_unlock(struct proc *p)
{
	workq_unlock(proc_get_wqptr_fast(p));
}

void
workq_kern_threadreq_update_inheritor(struct proc *p, struct kqrequest *kqr,
		thread_t owner, struct turnstile *wl_ts,
		turnstile_update_flags_t flags)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr_fast(p);
	workq_threadreq_t req = &kqr->kqr_req;
	turnstile_inheritor_t inheritor;

	assert(req->tr_qos != WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER);
	assert(req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WORKLOOP);
	workq_lock_held(wq);

	if (req->tr_state == TR_STATE_BINDING) {
		kqueue_threadreq_bind(p, req, req->tr_binding_thread,
				KQUEUE_THREADERQ_BIND_NO_INHERITOR_UPDATE);
		return;
	}

	if (_wq_exiting(wq)) {
		inheritor = TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_NULL;
	} else {
		if (req->tr_state != TR_STATE_QUEUED) {
			panic("Invalid thread request (%p) state %d", req, req->tr_state);
		}

		if (owner) {
			inheritor = owner;
			flags |= TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_THREAD;
		} else {
			inheritor = wq->wq_turnstile;
			flags |= TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_TURNSTILE;
		}
	}

	workq_perform_turnstile_operation_locked(wq, ^{
		turnstile_update_inheritor(wl_ts, inheritor, flags);
	});
}

void
workq_kern_threadreq_redrive(struct proc *p, int flags)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr_fast(p);

	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	workq_schedule_creator(p, wq, flags);
	workq_unlock(wq);
}

void
workq_schedule_creator_turnstile_redrive(struct workqueue *wq, bool locked)
{
	if (!locked) workq_lock_spin(wq);
	workq_schedule_creator(NULL, wq, WORKQ_THREADREQ_CREATOR_SYNC_UPDATE);
	if (!locked) workq_unlock(wq);
}

static int
workq_thread_return(struct proc *p, struct workq_kernreturn_args *uap,
		struct workqueue *wq)
{
	thread_t th = current_thread();
	struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(th);
	struct kqrequest *kqr = uth->uu_kqr_bound;
	workq_threadreq_param_t trp = { };
	int nevents = uap->affinity, error;
	user_addr_t eventlist = uap->item;

	if (((thread_get_tag(th) & THREAD_TAG_WORKQUEUE) == 0) ||
			(uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_DYING)) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	if (eventlist && nevents && kqr == NULL) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	/* reset signal mask on the workqueue thread to default state */
	if (uth->uu_sigmask != (sigset_t)(~workq_threadmask)) {
		proc_lock(p);
		uth->uu_sigmask = ~workq_threadmask;
		proc_unlock(p);
	}

	if (kqr && kqr->kqr_req.tr_flags & TR_FLAG_WL_PARAMS) {
		/*
		 * Ensure we store the threadreq param before unbinding
		 * the kqr from this thread.
		 */
		trp = kqueue_threadreq_workloop_param(&kqr->kqr_req);
	}

	if (kqr) {
		uint32_t upcall_flags = WQ_FLAG_THREAD_NEWSPI | WQ_FLAG_THREAD_REUSE;
		if (kqr->kqr_state & KQR_WORKLOOP) {
			upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_WORKLOOP | WQ_FLAG_THREAD_KEVENT;
		} else {
			upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_KEVENT;
		}
		if (uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
			upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_EVENT_MANAGER;
		} else {
			if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT) {
				upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_OVERCOMMIT;
			}
			if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_OUTSIDE_QOS) {
				upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_OUTSIDEQOS;
			} else {
				upcall_flags |= uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_req |
						WQ_FLAG_THREAD_PRIO_QOS;
			}
		}

		error = pthread_functions->workq_handle_stack_events(p, th,
				get_task_map(p->task), uth->uu_workq_stackaddr,
				uth->uu_workq_thport, eventlist, nevents, upcall_flags);
		if (error) return error;

		// pthread is supposed to pass KEVENT_FLAG_PARKING here
		// which should cause the above call to either:
		// - not return
		// - return an error
		// - return 0 and have unbound properly
		assert(uth->uu_kqr_bound == NULL);
	}

	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_runthread | DBG_FUNC_END, wq, uap->options, 0, 0, 0);

	thread_sched_call(th, NULL);
	thread_will_park_or_terminate(th);
#if CONFIG_WORKLOOP_DEBUG
	UU_KEVENT_HISTORY_WRITE_ENTRY(uth, { .uu_error = -1, });
#endif

	workq_lock_spin(wq);
	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_logical_run | DBG_FUNC_END, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);
	uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.workloop_params = trp.trp_value;
	workq_select_threadreq_or_park_and_unlock(p, wq, uth);
	__builtin_unreachable();
}

/**
 * Multiplexed call to interact with the workqueue mechanism
 */
int
workq_kernreturn(struct proc *p, struct workq_kernreturn_args *uap, int32_t *retval)
{
	int options = uap->options;
	int arg2 = uap->affinity;
	int arg3 = uap->prio;
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	int error = 0;

	if ((p->p_lflag & P_LREGISTER) == 0) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	switch (options) {
	case WQOPS_QUEUE_NEWSPISUPP: {
		/*
		 * arg2 = offset of serialno into dispatch queue
		 * arg3 = kevent support
		 */
		int offset = arg2;
		if (arg3 & 0x01){
			// If we get here, then userspace has indicated support for kevent delivery.
		}

		p->p_dispatchqueue_serialno_offset = (uint64_t)offset;
		break;
	}
	case WQOPS_QUEUE_REQTHREADS: {
		/*
		 * arg2 = number of threads to start
		 * arg3 = priority
		 */
		error = workq_reqthreads(p, arg2, arg3);
		break;
	}
	case WQOPS_SET_EVENT_MANAGER_PRIORITY: {
		/*
		 * arg2 = priority for the manager thread
		 *
		 * if _PTHREAD_PRIORITY_SCHED_PRI_FLAG is set,
		 * the low bits of the value contains a scheduling priority
		 * instead of a QOS value
		 */
		pthread_priority_t pri = arg2;

		if (wq == NULL) {
			error = EINVAL;
			break;
		}

		/*
		 * Normalize the incoming priority so that it is ordered numerically.
		 */
		if (pri & _PTHREAD_PRIORITY_SCHED_PRI_FLAG) {
			pri &= (_PTHREAD_PRIORITY_SCHED_PRI_MASK |
					_PTHREAD_PRIORITY_SCHED_PRI_FLAG);
		} else {
			thread_qos_t qos = _pthread_priority_thread_qos(pri);
			int relpri = _pthread_priority_relpri(pri);
			if (relpri > 0 || relpri < THREAD_QOS_MIN_TIER_IMPORTANCE ||
					qos == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED) {
				error = EINVAL;
				break;
			}
			pri &= ~_PTHREAD_PRIORITY_FLAGS_MASK;
		}

		/*
		 * If userspace passes a scheduling priority, that wins over any QoS.
		 * Userspace should takes care not to lower the priority this way.
		 */
		workq_lock_spin(wq);
		if (wq->wq_event_manager_priority < (uint32_t)pri) {
			wq->wq_event_manager_priority = (uint32_t)pri;
		}
		workq_unlock(wq);
		break;
	}
	case WQOPS_THREAD_KEVENT_RETURN:
	case WQOPS_THREAD_WORKLOOP_RETURN:
	case WQOPS_THREAD_RETURN: {
		error = workq_thread_return(p, uap, wq);
		break;
	}

	case WQOPS_SHOULD_NARROW: {
		/*
		 * arg2 = priority to test
		 * arg3 = unused
		 */
		thread_t th = current_thread();
		struct uthread *uth = get_bsdthread_info(th);
		if (((thread_get_tag(th) & THREAD_TAG_WORKQUEUE) == 0) ||
				(uth->uu_workq_flags & (UT_WORKQ_DYING|UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT))) {
			error = EINVAL;
			break;
		}

		thread_qos_t qos = _pthread_priority_thread_qos(arg2);
		if (qos == THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED) {
			error = EINVAL;
			break;
		}
		workq_lock_spin(wq);
		bool should_narrow = !workq_constrained_allowance(wq, qos, uth, false);
		workq_unlock(wq);

		*retval = should_narrow;
		break;
	}
	default:
		error = EINVAL;
		break;
	}

	return (error);
}

/*
 * We have no work to do, park ourselves on the idle list.
 *
 * Consumes the workqueue lock and does not return.
 */
__attribute__((noreturn, noinline))
static void
workq_park_and_unlock(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth)
{
	assert(uth == current_uthread());
	assert(uth->uu_kqr_bound == NULL);
	workq_push_idle_thread(p, wq, uth); // may not return

	workq_thread_reset_cpupercent(NULL, uth);

	if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_IDLE_CLEANUP) {
		workq_unlock(wq);

		/*
		 * workq_push_idle_thread() will unset `has_stack`
		 * if it wants us to free the stack before parking.
		 */
		if (!uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.has_stack) {
			pthread_functions->workq_markfree_threadstack(p, uth->uu_thread,
					get_task_map(p->task), uth->uu_workq_stackaddr);
		}

		/*
		 * When we remove the voucher from the thread, we may lose our importance
		 * causing us to get preempted, so we do this after putting the thread on
		 * the idle list.  Then, when we get our importance back we'll be able to
		 * use this thread from e.g. the kevent call out to deliver a boosting
		 * message.
		 */
		__assert_only kern_return_t kr;
		kr = thread_set_voucher_name(MACH_PORT_NULL);
		assert(kr == KERN_SUCCESS);

		workq_lock_spin(wq);
		uth->uu_workq_flags &= ~UT_WORKQ_IDLE_CLEANUP;
	}

	if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_RUNNING) {
		/*
		 * While we'd dropped the lock to unset our voucher, someone came
		 * around and made us runnable.  But because we weren't waiting on the
		 * event their thread_wakeup() was ineffectual.  To correct for that,
		 * we just run the continuation ourselves.
		 */
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_logical_run | DBG_FUNC_END, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);
		workq_select_threadreq_or_park_and_unlock(p, wq, uth);
		__builtin_unreachable();
	}

	if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_DYING) {
		workq_unpark_for_death_and_unlock(p, wq, uth,
				WORKQ_UNPARK_FOR_DEATH_WAS_IDLE);
		__builtin_unreachable();
	}

	thread_set_pending_block_hint(uth->uu_thread, kThreadWaitParkedWorkQueue);
	assert_wait(workq_parked_wait_event(uth), THREAD_INTERRUPTIBLE);
	workq_unlock(wq);
	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_logical_run | DBG_FUNC_END, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);
	thread_block(workq_unpark_continue);
	__builtin_unreachable();
}

static inline bool
workq_may_start_event_mgr_thread(struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth)
{
	/*
	 * There's an event manager request and either:
	 * - no event manager currently running
	 * - we are re-using the event manager
	 */
	return wq->wq_thscheduled_count[_wq_bucket(WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER)] == 0 ||
			(uth && uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER);
}

static uint32_t
workq_constrained_allowance(struct workqueue *wq, thread_qos_t at_qos,
		struct uthread *uth, bool may_start_timer)
{
	assert(at_qos != WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER);
	uint32_t count = 0;

	uint32_t max_count = wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled;
	if (uth && (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
		/*
		 * don't count the current thread as scheduled
		 */
		assert(max_count > 0);
		max_count--;
	}
	if (max_count >= wq_max_constrained_threads) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_constrained_admission | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 1,
				wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled,
				wq_max_constrained_threads, 0);
		/*
		 * we need 1 or more constrained threads to return to the kernel before
		 * we can dispatch additional work
		 */
		return 0;
	}
	max_count -= wq_max_constrained_threads;

	/*
	 * Compute a metric for many how many threads are active.  We find the
	 * highest priority request outstanding and then add up the number of
	 * active threads in that and all higher-priority buckets.  We'll also add
	 * any "busy" threads which are not active but blocked recently enough that
	 * we can't be sure they've gone idle yet.  We'll then compare this metric
	 * to our max concurrency to decide whether to add a new thread.
	 */

	uint32_t busycount, thactive_count;

	thactive_count = _wq_thactive_aggregate_downto_qos(wq, _wq_thactive(wq),
			at_qos, &busycount, NULL);

	if (uth && uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket != WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER &&
			at_qos <= uth->uu_workq_pri.qos_bucket) {
		/*
		 * Don't count this thread as currently active, but only if it's not
		 * a manager thread, as _wq_thactive_aggregate_downto_qos ignores active
		 * managers.
		 */
		assert(thactive_count > 0);
		thactive_count--;
	}

	count = wq_max_parallelism[_wq_bucket(at_qos)];
	if (count > thactive_count + busycount) {
		count -= thactive_count + busycount;
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_constrained_admission | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 2,
				thactive_count, busycount, 0);
		return MIN(count, max_count);
	} else {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_constrained_admission | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 3,
				thactive_count, busycount, 0);
	}

	if (busycount && may_start_timer) {
		/*
		 * If this is called from the add timer, we won't have another timer
		 * fire when the thread exits the "busy" state, so rearm the timer.
		 */
		workq_schedule_delayed_thread_creation(wq, 0);
	}

	return 0;
}

static bool
workq_threadreq_admissible(struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth,
		workq_threadreq_t req)
{
	if (req->tr_qos == WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER) {
		return workq_may_start_event_mgr_thread(wq, uth);
	}
	if ((req->tr_flags & TR_FLAG_OVERCOMMIT) == 0) {
		return workq_constrained_allowance(wq, req->tr_qos, uth, true);
	}
	return true;
}

static workq_threadreq_t
workq_threadreq_select_for_creator(struct workqueue *wq)
{
	workq_threadreq_t req_qos, req_pri, req_tmp;
	thread_qos_t qos = THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED;
	uint8_t pri = 0;

	req_tmp = wq->wq_event_manager_threadreq;
	if (req_tmp && workq_may_start_event_mgr_thread(wq, NULL)) {
		return req_tmp;
	}

	/*
	 * Compute the best priority request, and ignore the turnstile for now
	 */

	req_pri = priority_queue_max(&wq->wq_special_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry);
	if (req_pri) {
		pri = priority_queue_entry_key(&wq->wq_special_queue, &req_pri->tr_entry);
	}

	/*
	 * Compute the best QoS Request, and check whether it beats the "pri" one
	 */

	req_qos = priority_queue_max(&wq->wq_overcommit_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry);
	if (req_qos) {
		qos = req_qos->tr_qos;
	}

	req_tmp = priority_queue_max(&wq->wq_constrained_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry);

	if (req_tmp && qos < req_tmp->tr_qos) {
		if (pri && pri >= thread_workq_pri_for_qos(req_tmp->tr_qos)) {
			return req_pri;
		}

		if (workq_constrained_allowance(wq, req_tmp->tr_qos, NULL, true)) {
			/*
			 * If the constrained thread request is the best one and passes
			 * the admission check, pick it.
			 */
			return req_tmp;
		}
	}

	if (pri && (!qos || pri >= thread_workq_pri_for_qos(qos))) {
		return req_pri;
	}

	if (req_qos) {
		return req_qos;
	}

	/*
	 * If we had no eligible request but we have a turnstile push,
	 * it must be a non overcommit thread request that failed
	 * the admission check.
	 *
	 * Just fake a BG thread request so that if the push stops the creator
	 * priority just drops to 4.
	 */
	if (turnstile_workq_proprietor_of_max_turnstile(wq->wq_turnstile, NULL)) {
		static struct workq_threadreq_s workq_sync_push_fake_req = {
			.tr_qos = THREAD_QOS_BACKGROUND,
		};

		return &workq_sync_push_fake_req;
	}

	return NULL;
}

static workq_threadreq_t
workq_threadreq_select(struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth)
{
	workq_threadreq_t req_qos, req_pri, req_tmp;
	uintptr_t proprietor;
	thread_qos_t qos = THREAD_QOS_UNSPECIFIED;
	uint8_t pri = 0;

	if (uth == wq->wq_creator) uth = NULL;

	req_tmp = wq->wq_event_manager_threadreq;
	if (req_tmp && workq_may_start_event_mgr_thread(wq, uth)) {
		return req_tmp;
	}

	/*
	 * Compute the best priority request (special or turnstile)
	 */

	pri = turnstile_workq_proprietor_of_max_turnstile(wq->wq_turnstile,
			&proprietor);
	if (pri) {
		struct kqworkloop *kqwl = (struct kqworkloop *)proprietor;
		req_pri = &kqwl->kqwl_request.kqr_req;
		if (req_pri->tr_state != TR_STATE_QUEUED) {
			panic("Invalid thread request (%p) state %d",
					req_pri, req_pri->tr_state);
		}
	} else {
		req_pri = NULL;
	}

	req_tmp = priority_queue_max(&wq->wq_special_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry);
	if (req_tmp && pri < priority_queue_entry_key(&wq->wq_special_queue,
			&req_tmp->tr_entry)) {
		req_pri = req_tmp;
		pri = priority_queue_entry_key(&wq->wq_special_queue, &req_tmp->tr_entry);
	}

	/*
	 * Compute the best QoS Request, and check whether it beats the "pri" one
	 */

	req_qos = priority_queue_max(&wq->wq_overcommit_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry);
	if (req_qos) {
		qos = req_qos->tr_qos;
	}

	req_tmp = priority_queue_max(&wq->wq_constrained_queue,
			struct workq_threadreq_s, tr_entry);

	if (req_tmp && qos < req_tmp->tr_qos) {
		if (pri && pri >= thread_workq_pri_for_qos(req_tmp->tr_qos)) {
			return req_pri;
		}

		if (workq_constrained_allowance(wq, req_tmp->tr_qos, uth, true)) {
			/*
			 * If the constrained thread request is the best one and passes
			 * the admission check, pick it.
			 */
			return req_tmp;
		}
	}

	if (req_pri && (!qos || pri >= thread_workq_pri_for_qos(qos))) {
		return req_pri;
	}

	return req_qos;
}

/*
 * The creator is an anonymous thread that is counted as scheduled,
 * but otherwise without its scheduler callback set or tracked as active
 * that is used to make other threads.
 *
 * When more requests are added or an existing one is hurried along,
 * a creator is elected and setup, or the existing one overridden accordingly.
 *
 * While this creator is in flight, because no request has been dequeued,
 * already running threads have a chance at stealing thread requests avoiding
 * useless context switches, and the creator once scheduled may not find any
 * work to do and will then just park again.
 *
 * The creator serves the dual purpose of informing the scheduler of work that
 * hasn't be materialized as threads yet, and also as a natural pacing mechanism
 * for thread creation.
 *
 * By being anonymous (and not bound to anything) it means that thread requests
 * can be stolen from this creator by threads already on core yielding more
 * efficient scheduling and reduced context switches.
 */
static void
workq_schedule_creator(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq, int flags)
{
	workq_threadreq_t req;
	struct uthread *uth;

	workq_lock_held(wq);
	assert(p || (flags & WORKQ_THREADREQ_CAN_CREATE_THREADS) == 0);

again:
	uth = wq->wq_creator;

	if (!wq->wq_reqcount) {
		if (uth == NULL) {
			workq_turnstile_update_inheritor(wq, TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_NULL, 0);
		}
		return;
	}

	req = workq_threadreq_select_for_creator(wq);
	if (req == NULL) {
		if (flags & WORKQ_THREADREQ_CREATOR_SYNC_UPDATE) {
			assert((flags & WORKQ_THREADREQ_CREATOR_TRANSFER) == 0);
			/*
			 * turnstile propagation code is reaching out to us,
			 * and we still don't want to do anything, do not recurse.
			 */
		} else {
			workq_turnstile_update_inheritor(wq, wq, TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_WORKQ);
		}
		return;
	}

	if (uth) {
		/*
		 * We need to maybe override the creator we already have
		 */
		if (workq_thread_needs_priority_change(req, uth)) {
			WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_creator_select | DBG_FUNC_NONE,
					wq, 1, thread_tid(uth->uu_thread), req->tr_qos, 0);
			workq_thread_reset_pri(wq, uth, req);
		}
	} else if (wq->wq_thidlecount) {
		/*
		 * We need to unpark a creator thread
		 */
		wq->wq_creator = uth = workq_pop_idle_thread(wq);
		if (workq_thread_needs_priority_change(req, uth)) {
			workq_thread_reset_pri(wq, uth, req);
		}
		workq_turnstile_update_inheritor(wq, uth->uu_thread,
				TURNSTILE_INHERITOR_THREAD);
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_creator_select | DBG_FUNC_NONE,
				wq, 2, thread_tid(uth->uu_thread), req->tr_qos, 0);
		uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.fulfilled_snapshot = wq->wq_fulfilled;
		uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.yields = 0;
		workq_thread_wakeup(uth);
	} else {
		/*
		 * We need to allocate a thread...
		 */
		if (__improbable(wq->wq_nthreads >= wq_max_threads)) {
			/* out of threads, just go away */
		} else if (flags & WORKQ_THREADREQ_SET_AST_ON_FAILURE) {
			act_set_astkevent(current_thread(), AST_KEVENT_REDRIVE_THREADREQ);
		} else if (!(flags & WORKQ_THREADREQ_CAN_CREATE_THREADS)) {
			/* This can drop the workqueue lock, and take it again */
			workq_schedule_immediate_thread_creation(wq);
		} else if (workq_add_new_idle_thread(p, wq)) {
			goto again;
		} else {
			workq_schedule_delayed_thread_creation(wq, 0);
		}

		if (flags & WORKQ_THREADREQ_CREATOR_TRANSFER) {
			/*
			 * workq_schedule_creator() failed at creating a thread,
			 * and the responsibility of redriving is now with a thread-call.
			 *
			 * We still need to tell the turnstile the previous creator is gone.
			 */
			workq_turnstile_update_inheritor(wq, NULL, 0);
		}
	}
}

/**
 * Runs a thread request on a thread
 *
 * - if thread is THREAD_NULL, will find a thread and run the request there.
 *   Otherwise, the thread must be the current thread.
 *
 * - if req is NULL, will find the highest priority request and run that.  If
 *   it is not NULL, it must be a threadreq object in state NEW.  If it can not
 *   be run immediately, it will be enqueued and moved to state QUEUED.
 *
 *   Either way, the thread request object serviced will be moved to state
 *   BINDING and attached to the uthread.
 *
 *   Should be called with the workqueue lock held.  Will drop it.
 */
__attribute__((noreturn, noinline))
static void
workq_select_threadreq_or_park_and_unlock(proc_t p, struct workqueue *wq,
		struct uthread *uth)
{
	uint32_t setup_flags = 0;
	workq_threadreq_t req;

	if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_EARLY_BOUND) {
		if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_NEW) {
			setup_flags |= WQ_SETUP_FIRST_USE;
		}
		uth->uu_workq_flags &= ~(UT_WORKQ_NEW | UT_WORKQ_EARLY_BOUND);
		/*
		 * This pointer is possibly freed and only used for tracing purposes.
		 */
		req = uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.thread_request;
		workq_unlock(wq);
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_logical_run | DBG_FUNC_START, wq,
				VM_KERNEL_ADDRHIDE(req), 0, 0, 0);
		goto run;
	} else if (_wq_exiting(wq)) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_select_threadreq | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 0, 0, 0, 0);
	} else if (wq->wq_reqcount == 0) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_select_threadreq | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 1, 0, 0, 0);
	} else if ((req = workq_threadreq_select(wq, uth)) == NULL) {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_select_threadreq | DBG_FUNC_NONE, wq, 2, 0, 0, 0);
	} else {
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_thread_logical_run | DBG_FUNC_START, wq,
				workq_trace_req_id(req), 0, 0, 0);
		if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_NEW) {
			uth->uu_workq_flags ^= UT_WORKQ_NEW;
			setup_flags |= WQ_SETUP_FIRST_USE;
		}
		workq_thread_reset_cpupercent(req, uth);
		workq_threadreq_bind_and_unlock(p, wq, req, uth);
run:
		workq_setup_and_run(p, uth, setup_flags);
		__builtin_unreachable();
	}

	workq_park_and_unlock(p, wq, uth);
	__builtin_unreachable();
}

static bool
workq_creator_should_yield(struct workqueue *wq, struct uthread *uth)
{
	thread_qos_t qos = workq_pri_override(uth->uu_workq_pri);

	if (qos >= THREAD_QOS_USER_INTERACTIVE) {
		return false;
	}

	uint32_t snapshot = uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.fulfilled_snapshot;
	if (wq->wq_fulfilled == snapshot) {
		return false;
	}

	uint32_t cnt = 0, conc = wq_max_parallelism[_wq_bucket(qos)];
	if (wq->wq_fulfilled - snapshot > conc) {
		/* we fulfilled more than NCPU requests since being dispatched */
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_creator_yield, wq, 1,
				wq->wq_fulfilled, snapshot, 0);
		return true;
	}

	for (int i = _wq_bucket(qos); i < WORKQ_NUM_QOS_BUCKETS; i++) {
		cnt += wq->wq_thscheduled_count[i];
	}
	if (conc <= cnt) {
		/* We fulfilled requests and have more than NCPU scheduled threads */
		WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_creator_yield, wq, 2,
				wq->wq_fulfilled, snapshot, 0);
		return true;
	}

	return false;
}

/**
 * parked thread wakes up
 */
__attribute__((noreturn, noinline))
static void
workq_unpark_continue(void *parameter __unused, wait_result_t wr __unused)
{
	struct uthread *uth = current_uthread();
	proc_t p = current_proc();
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr_fast(p);

	workq_lock_spin(wq);

	if (wq->wq_creator == uth && workq_creator_should_yield(wq, uth)) {
		/*
		 * If the number of threads we have out are able to keep up with the
		 * demand, then we should avoid sending this creator thread to
		 * userspace.
		 */
		uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.fulfilled_snapshot = wq->wq_fulfilled;
		uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.yields++;
		workq_unlock(wq);
		thread_yield_with_continuation(workq_unpark_continue, NULL);
		__builtin_unreachable();
	}

	if (__probable(uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_RUNNING)) {
		workq_select_threadreq_or_park_and_unlock(p, wq, uth);
		__builtin_unreachable();
	}

	if (__probable(wr == THREAD_AWAKENED)) {
		/*
		 * We were set running, but for the purposes of dying.
		 */
		assert(uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_DYING);
		assert((uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_NEW) == 0);
	} else {
		/*
		 * workaround for <rdar://problem/38647347>,
		 * in case we do hit userspace, make sure calling
		 * workq_thread_terminate() does the right thing here,
		 * and if we never call it, that workq_exit() will too because it sees
		 * this thread on the runlist.
		 */
		assert(wr == THREAD_INTERRUPTED);
		wq->wq_thdying_count++;
		uth->uu_workq_flags |= UT_WORKQ_DYING;
	}

	workq_unpark_for_death_and_unlock(p, wq, uth,
			WORKQ_UNPARK_FOR_DEATH_WAS_IDLE);
	__builtin_unreachable();
}

__attribute__((noreturn, noinline))
static void
workq_setup_and_run(proc_t p, struct uthread *uth, int setup_flags)
{
	thread_t th = uth->uu_thread;
	vm_map_t vmap = get_task_map(p->task);

	if (setup_flags & WQ_SETUP_CLEAR_VOUCHER) {
		/*
		 * For preemption reasons, we want to reset the voucher as late as
		 * possible, so we do it in two places:
		 *   - Just before parking (i.e. in workq_park_and_unlock())
		 *   - Prior to doing the setup for the next workitem (i.e. here)
		 *
		 * Those two places are sufficient to ensure we always reset it before
		 * it goes back out to user space, but be careful to not break that
		 * guarantee.
		 */
		__assert_only kern_return_t kr;
		kr = thread_set_voucher_name(MACH_PORT_NULL);
		assert(kr == KERN_SUCCESS);
	}

	uint32_t upcall_flags = uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.upcall_flags;
	if (!(setup_flags & WQ_SETUP_FIRST_USE)) {
		upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_REUSE;
	}

	if (uth->uu_workq_flags & UT_WORKQ_OUTSIDE_QOS) {
		/*
		 * For threads that have an outside-of-QoS thread priority, indicate
		 * to userspace that setting QoS should only affect the TSD and not
		 * change QOS in the kernel.
		 */
		upcall_flags |= WQ_FLAG_THREAD_OUTSIDEQOS;
	} else {
		/*
		 * Put the QoS class value into the lower bits of the reuse_thread
		 * register, this is where the thread priority used to be stored
		 * anyway.
		 */
		upcall_flags |= uth->uu_save.uus_workq_park_data.qos |
				WQ_FLAG_THREAD_PRIO_QOS;
	}

	if (uth->uu_workq_thport == MACH_PORT_NULL) {
		/* convert_thread_to_port() consumes a reference */
		thread_reference(th);
		ipc_port_t port = convert_thread_to_port(th);
		uth->uu_workq_thport = ipc_port_copyout_send(port, get_task_ipcspace(p->task));
	}

	/*
	 * Call out to pthread, this sets up the thread, pulls in kevent structs
	 * onto the stack, sets up the thread state and then returns to userspace.
	 */
	WQ_TRACE_WQ(TRACE_wq_runthread | DBG_FUNC_START,
			proc_get_wqptr_fast(p), 0, 0, 0, 0);
	thread_sched_call(th, workq_sched_callback);
	pthread_functions->workq_setup_thread(p, th, vmap, uth->uu_workq_stackaddr,
			uth->uu_workq_thport, 0, setup_flags, upcall_flags);

	__builtin_unreachable();
}

#pragma mark misc

int
fill_procworkqueue(proc_t p, struct proc_workqueueinfo * pwqinfo)
{
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);
	int error = 0;
	int	activecount;

	if (wq == NULL) {
		return EINVAL;
	}

	/*
	 * This is sometimes called from interrupt context by the kperf sampler.
	 * In that case, it's not safe to spin trying to take the lock since we
	 * might already hold it.  So, we just try-lock it and error out if it's
	 * already held.  Since this is just a debugging aid, and all our callers
	 * are able to handle an error, that's fine.
	 */
	bool locked = workq_lock_try(wq);
	if (!locked) {
		return EBUSY;
	}

	wq_thactive_t act = _wq_thactive(wq);
	activecount = _wq_thactive_aggregate_downto_qos(wq, act,
			WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MIN, NULL, NULL);
	if (act & _wq_thactive_offset_for_qos(WORKQ_THREAD_QOS_MANAGER)) {
		activecount++;
	}
	pwqinfo->pwq_nthreads = wq->wq_nthreads;
	pwqinfo->pwq_runthreads = activecount;
	pwqinfo->pwq_blockedthreads = wq->wq_threads_scheduled - activecount;
	pwqinfo->pwq_state = 0;

	if (wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled >= wq_max_constrained_threads) {
		pwqinfo->pwq_state |= WQ_EXCEEDED_CONSTRAINED_THREAD_LIMIT;
	}

	if (wq->wq_nthreads >= wq_max_threads) {
		pwqinfo->pwq_state |= WQ_EXCEEDED_TOTAL_THREAD_LIMIT;
	}

	workq_unlock(wq);
	return error;
}

boolean_t
workqueue_get_pwq_exceeded(void *v, boolean_t *exceeded_total,
		boolean_t *exceeded_constrained)
{
	proc_t p = v;
	struct proc_workqueueinfo pwqinfo;
	int err;

	assert(p != NULL);
	assert(exceeded_total != NULL);
	assert(exceeded_constrained != NULL);

	err = fill_procworkqueue(p, &pwqinfo);
	if (err) {
		return FALSE;
	}
	if (!(pwqinfo.pwq_state & WQ_FLAGS_AVAILABLE)) {
		return FALSE;
	}

	*exceeded_total = (pwqinfo.pwq_state & WQ_EXCEEDED_TOTAL_THREAD_LIMIT);
	*exceeded_constrained = (pwqinfo.pwq_state & WQ_EXCEEDED_CONSTRAINED_THREAD_LIMIT);

	return TRUE;
}

uint32_t
workqueue_get_pwq_state_kdp(void * v)
{
	static_assert((WQ_EXCEEDED_CONSTRAINED_THREAD_LIMIT << 17) ==
			kTaskWqExceededConstrainedThreadLimit);
	static_assert((WQ_EXCEEDED_TOTAL_THREAD_LIMIT << 17) ==
			kTaskWqExceededTotalThreadLimit);
	static_assert((WQ_FLAGS_AVAILABLE << 17) == kTaskWqFlagsAvailable);
	static_assert((WQ_FLAGS_AVAILABLE | WQ_EXCEEDED_TOTAL_THREAD_LIMIT |
				WQ_EXCEEDED_CONSTRAINED_THREAD_LIMIT) == 0x7);

	if (v == NULL) {
		return 0;
	}

	proc_t p = v;
	struct workqueue *wq = proc_get_wqptr(p);

	if (wq == NULL || workq_lock_spin_is_acquired_kdp(wq)) {
		return 0;
	}

	uint32_t pwq_state = WQ_FLAGS_AVAILABLE;

	if (wq->wq_constrained_threads_scheduled >= wq_max_constrained_threads) {
		pwq_state |= WQ_EXCEEDED_CONSTRAINED_THREAD_LIMIT;
	}

	if (wq->wq_nthreads >= wq_max_threads) {
		pwq_state |= WQ_EXCEEDED_TOTAL_THREAD_LIMIT;
	}

	return pwq_state;
}

void
workq_init(void)
{
	workq_lck_grp_attr = lck_grp_attr_alloc_init();
	workq_lck_attr = lck_attr_alloc_init();
	workq_lck_grp = lck_grp_alloc_init("workq", workq_lck_grp_attr);

	workq_zone_workqueue = zinit(sizeof(struct workqueue),
			1024 * sizeof(struct workqueue), 8192, "workq.wq");
	workq_zone_threadreq = zinit(sizeof(struct workq_threadreq_s),
			1024 * sizeof(struct workq_threadreq_s), 8192, "workq.threadreq");

	clock_interval_to_absolutetime_interval(wq_stalled_window.usecs,
			NSEC_PER_USEC, &wq_stalled_window.abstime);
	clock_interval_to_absolutetime_interval(wq_reduce_pool_window.usecs,
			NSEC_PER_USEC, &wq_reduce_pool_window.abstime);
	clock_interval_to_absolutetime_interval(wq_max_timer_interval.usecs,
			NSEC_PER_USEC, &wq_max_timer_interval.abstime);
}