This is xnu-6153.11.26. See this file in:
 * Copyright (c) 2017 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
 * This file contains Original Code and/or Modifications of Original Code
 * as defined in and that are subject to the Apple Public Source License
 * Version 2.0 (the 'License'). You may not use this file except in
 * compliance with the License. The rights granted to you under the License
 * may not be used to create, or enable the creation or redistribution of,
 * unlawful or unlicensed copies of an Apple operating system, or to
 * circumvent, violate, or enable the circumvention or violation of, any
 * terms of an Apple operating system software license agreement.
 * Please obtain a copy of the License at
 * and read it before using this file.
 * The Original Code and all software distributed under the License are
 * distributed on an 'AS IS' basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
 * Please see the License for the specific language governing rights and
 * limitations under the License.

#ifndef _OS_REFCNT_H_
#define _OS_REFCNT_H_

 * os_refcnt reference counting API
 * Two flavors are provided: atomic and locked. Atomic internally uses C11 atomic
 * operations and requires no external synchronization, whereas the locked flavor
 * assumes the refcnt object is locked by the caller. It is NOT safe to
 * mix-and-match locked and atomic calls.
 * 'refgrp's are a way to (hierarchically) group like refcount objects for
 * debugging purposes. The group keeps track of the total number and aggregate
 * reference count of member refcounts, and the "rlog=" boot-arg is used to enable
 * refcount logging by group name. Named groups can be created explicitly with
 * os_refgrp_decl(), or implicitly by passing NULL for the refgrp when
 * initializing a refcnt object. In the latter case, the group name is the same as
 * the function enclosing the init call. Groups are only available on DEV or DEBUG
 * builds, and are otherwise compiled out.

#include <stdatomic.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <os/base.h>

struct os_refcnt;
struct os_refgrp;
typedef struct os_refcnt os_refcnt_t;

/* type of the internal counter */
typedef uint32_t os_ref_count_t;
typedef _Atomic(os_ref_count_t) os_ref_atomic_t;

 * Static initializers that create refcnt objects with safe initial values for use
 * between declaration and initialization (os_ref*_init()). Equivalent to zeroing.

#ifndef KERNEL
# include <stdlib.h>
# include <stdio.h>
# ifndef __improbable
#  define __improbable(x) x
# endif
# ifndef panic
#  define panic(x, ...) do { fprintf(stderr, x, __VA_ARGS__); abort(); } while (0)
# endif

#  define OS_REFCNT_DEBUG 1
# else
#  define OS_REFCNT_DEBUG 0
# endif

#if __has_attribute(diagnose_if)
# define os_error_if(cond, msg) __attribute__((diagnose_if((cond), (msg), "error")))
# define os_error_if(...)


 * os_ref_init: initialize an os_refcnt with a count of 1
 * os_ref_init_count: initialize an os_refcnt with a specific count >= 1
#define os_ref_init(rc, grp) os_ref_init_count((rc), (grp), 1)
static void os_ref_init_count(struct os_refcnt *, struct os_refgrp *, os_ref_count_t count)
os_error_if(count == 0, "Reference count must be non-zero initialized");

 * os_refgrp_decl(qual, var, name, parent): declare a refgroup object 'var' with
 *   given name string and parent group.

 * os_ref_retain: acquire a reference (increment reference count by 1) atomically.
 * os_ref_release: release a reference (decrement reference count) atomically and
 *		return the new count. Memory is synchronized such that the dealloc block
 *		(i.e. code handling the final release() == 0 call) sees up-to-date memory
 *		with respect to all prior release()s on the same refcnt object. This
 *		memory ordering is sufficient for most use cases.
 * os_ref_release_relaxed: same as release() but with weaker relaxed memory ordering.
 *		This can be used when the dealloc block is already synchronized with other
 *		accesses to the object (for example, with a lock).
 * os_ref_release_live: release a reference that is guaranteed not to be the last one.
static void os_ref_retain(struct os_refcnt *);
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_release(struct os_refcnt *) OS_WARN_RESULT;
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_release_relaxed(struct os_refcnt *) OS_WARN_RESULT;
static void os_ref_release_live(struct os_refcnt *);

 * os_ref_retain_try: a variant of atomic retain that fails for objects with a
 *		zero reference count. The caller must therefore ensure that the object
 *		remains alive for any possible retain_try() caller, usually by using a
 *		lock protecting both the retain and dealloc paths. This variant is useful
 *		for objects stored in a collection, because no lock is required on the
 *		release() side until the object is deallocated.
static bool os_ref_retain_try(struct os_refcnt *) OS_WARN_RESULT;

 * os_ref_retain_locked: acquire a reference on an object protected by a held
 *		lock. The caller must ensure mutual exclusivity of retain_locked() and
 *		release_locked() calls on the same object.
 * os_ref_release_locked: release a reference on an object protected by a held
 *		lock.
static void os_ref_retain_locked(struct os_refcnt *);
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_release_locked(struct os_refcnt *) OS_WARN_RESULT;

 * os_ref_get_count: return the current reference count. This is unsafe for
 *		synchronization.
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_get_count(struct os_refcnt *rc);

 * Raw API that uses a plain atomic counter (os_ref_atomic_t) and a separate
 * refgroup. This can be used in situations where the refcount object must be
 * fixed size, for example for embedding in structures with ABI stability
 * requirements.

#define os_ref_init_raw(rc, grp) os_ref_init_count_raw((rc), (grp), 1)
static void os_ref_init_count_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *, os_ref_count_t count)
os_error_if(count == 0, "Reference count must be non-zero initialized");
static void os_ref_retain_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *);
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_release_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *) OS_WARN_RESULT;
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_release_relaxed_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *) OS_WARN_RESULT;
static void os_ref_release_live_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *);
static bool os_ref_retain_try_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *) OS_WARN_RESULT;
static void os_ref_retain_locked_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *);
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_release_locked_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *) OS_WARN_RESULT;
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_get_count_raw(os_ref_atomic_t *rc);

 * Bitwise API: like the raw API, but allows some bits in the refcount value to be
 * reserved for other purposes. 'b' defines the number of trailing (LSB) reserved
 * bits, which the refcnt_raw API will never modify (except at init()).
 * It is assumed that users of this API always use atomic ops on the
 * os_ref_atomic_t (or hold a lock for the locked variants), and never modify the
 * top (32 - 'b') bits.
 * Due to guard bits, the maximum reference count is 2^(28 - 'b') - 1, and the
 * maximum 'b' is 26 bits. This API can also be used just to limit the max
 * refcount.

/* Initialize the reference count and reserved bits */
#define os_ref_init_mask(rc, grp, b) os_ref_init_count_mask((rc), (grp), 1, 0, (b))
void os_ref_init_count_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *rc, struct os_refgrp *grp, os_ref_count_t init_count,
    os_ref_count_t init_bits, os_ref_count_t b)
os_error_if(init_count == 0, "Reference count must be non-zero initialized")
os_error_if(b > 26, "Bitwise reference count limited to 26 bits")
os_error_if(init_bits >= (1U << b), "Bits out of range");

void os_ref_retain_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *rc, struct os_refgrp *grp, os_ref_count_t b);
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_release_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *rc, struct os_refgrp *grp, os_ref_count_t b) OS_WARN_RESULT;
static os_ref_count_t os_ref_release_relaxed_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *rc, struct os_refgrp *grp, os_ref_count_t b) OS_WARN_RESULT;
static void os_ref_release_live_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *rc, struct os_refgrp *grp, os_ref_count_t b);
bool os_ref_retain_try_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *, struct os_refgrp *grp, os_ref_count_t b) OS_WARN_RESULT;
void os_ref_retain_locked_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *rc, struct os_refgrp *grp, os_ref_count_t b);
os_ref_count_t os_ref_release_locked_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *rc, struct os_refgrp *grp, os_ref_count_t b) OS_WARN_RESULT;
os_ref_count_t os_ref_get_count_mask(os_ref_atomic_t *rc, os_ref_count_t b);



#include <os/refcnt_internal.h>