This is xnu-4903.221.2. See this file in:
#include <darwintest.h>
#include <darwintest_utils.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/mount.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

#include <IOKit/IOKitLib.h>
#include <Kernel/IOKit/crypto/AppleKeyStoreDefs.h>
#include <Kernel/sys/content_protection.h>

#define CPT_IO_SIZE      4096
#define CPT_AKS_BUF_SIZE 256
#define CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN 64

#define GET_PROT_CLASS(fd) \
	fcntl((fd), F_GETPROTECTIONCLASS)

#define SET_PROT_CLASS(fd, prot_class) \
	fcntl((fd), F_SETPROTECTIONCLASS, (prot_class))

#define KEYSTORECTL_PATH  "/usr/local/bin/keystorectl"
#define KEYBAGDTEST_PATH  "/usr/local/bin/keybagdTest"
#define TEMP_DIR_TEMPLATE "/tmp/data_protection_test.XXXXXXXX"
#define TEST_PASSCODE     "IAmASecurePassword"

int g_fd           = -1;
int g_dir_fd       = -1;
int g_subdir_fd    = -1;
int g_passcode_set = 0;

char g_test_tempdir[PATH_MAX] = TEMP_DIR_TEMPLATE;
char g_filepath[PATH_MAX]     = "";
char g_dirpath[PATH_MAX]      = "";
char g_subdirpath[PATH_MAX]   = "";

int apple_key_store(
	uint32_t command,
	uint64_t * inputs,
	uint32_t input_count,
	void * input_structs,
	size_t input_struct_count,
	uint64_t * outputs,
	uint32_t * output_count
);
int spawn_proc(char * const command[]);
int supports_content_prot(void);
char* dp_class_num_to_string(int num);
int lock_device(void);
int unlock_device(char * passcode);
int set_passcode(char * new_passcode, char * old_passcode);
int clear_passcode(char * passcode);
int has_passcode(void);
void setup(void);
void cleanup(void);

T_DECL(data_protection,
	"Verify behavior of the various data protection classes") {
	int local_result = -1;
	int new_prot_class = -1;
	int old_prot_class = -1;
	int current_byte = 0;
	char rd_buffer[CPT_IO_SIZE];
	char wr_buffer[CPT_IO_SIZE];

	setup();

	/*
	 * Ensure we can freely read and change
	 * protection classes when unlocked.
	 */
	for(
		new_prot_class = PROTECTION_CLASS_A;
		new_prot_class <= PROTECTION_CLASS_F;
		new_prot_class++
	) {
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			old_prot_class = GET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd),
			-1,
			"Get protection class when locked"
		);
		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			SET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd, new_prot_class),
			-1,
			"Should be able to change protection "
			"from %s to %s while unlocked",
			dp_class_num_to_string(old_prot_class),
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);
	}

	/* Query the filesystem for the default CP level (Is it C?) */
#ifndef F_GETDEFAULTPROTLEVEL
#define F_GETDEFAULTPROTLEVEL 79
#endif

	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_NE(
		old_prot_class = fcntl(g_fd, F_GETDEFAULTPROTLEVEL),
		-1,
		"Get default protection level for filesystem"
	);

	/* XXX: Do we want to do anything with the level? What should it be? */

	/*
	 * files are allowed to move into F, but not out of it. They can also
	 * only do so when they do not have content.
	 */
	close(g_fd);
	unlink(g_filepath);

	/* re-create the file */
	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_GE(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC),
		0,
		"Recreate test file"
	);

	/* Try making a class A file while locked. */
	T_ASSERT_EQ(lock_device(), 0, "*** Lock device ***");

	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_A),
		-1,
		"Should not be able to change protection "
		"from class D to class A when locked"
	);
	T_ASSERT_EQ(unlock_device(TEST_PASSCODE), 0, "*** Unlock device ***");

	/* Attempt opening/IO to a class A file while unlocked. */
	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_A),
		0,
		"Should be able to change protection "
		"from class D to class A when unlocked"
	);

	close(g_fd);

	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_GE(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC),
		0,
		"Should be able to open a class A file when unlocked");

	/*
	 * TODO: Write specific data we can check for. If we're going to do
	 * that, the write scheme should be deliberately ugly.
	 */
	current_byte = 0;

	while(current_byte < CPT_IO_SIZE) {
		local_result = pwrite(
			g_fd,
			&wr_buffer[current_byte],
			CPT_IO_SIZE - current_byte,
			current_byte
		);

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			local_result,
			-1,
			"Should be able to write to "
			"a class A file when unlocked"
		);

		current_byte += local_result;
	}

	current_byte = 0;

	while(current_byte < CPT_IO_SIZE) {
		local_result = pread(
			g_fd,
			&rd_buffer[current_byte],
			CPT_IO_SIZE - current_byte,
			current_byte
		);

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			local_result,
			-1,
			"Should be able to read from "
			"a class A file when unlocked"
		);

		current_byte += local_result;
	}

	/*
	 * Again, but now while locked; and try to change the file class
	 * as well.
	 */
	T_ASSERT_EQ(lock_device(), 0, "*** Lock device ***");

	T_ASSERT_LE(
		pread(g_fd, rd_buffer, CPT_IO_SIZE, 0),
		0,
		"Should not be able to read from a class A file when locked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_LE(
		pwrite(g_fd, wr_buffer, CPT_IO_SIZE, 0),
		0,
		"Should not be able to write to a class A file when locked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_D),
		-1,
		"Should not be able to change protection "
		"from class A to class D when locked"
	);

	/* Try to open and truncate the file. */
	close(g_fd);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_RDWR|O_TRUNC|O_CLOEXEC),
		-1,
		"Should not be able to open and truncate "
		"a class A file when locked"
	);

	/* Try to open the file */
	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC),
		-1,
		"Should not be able to open a class A file when locked"
	);

	/* What about class B files? */
	T_ASSERT_EQ(unlock_device(TEST_PASSCODE), 0, "*** Unlock device ***");

	T_ASSERT_GE(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC),
		0,
		"Should be able to open a class A file when unlocked"
	);

	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_D),
		0,
		"Should be able to change protection "
		"class from A to D when unlocked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(lock_device(), 0, "*** Lock device ***");

	/* Can we create a class B file while locked? */
	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_B),
		0,
		"Should be able to change protection "
		"class from D to B when locked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		GET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd),
		PROTECTION_CLASS_B,
		"File should now have class B protection"
	);

	/*
	 * We should also be able to read/write to the
	 * file descriptor while it is open.
	 */
	current_byte = 0;

	while(current_byte < CPT_IO_SIZE) {
		local_result = pwrite(
			g_fd,
			&wr_buffer[current_byte],
			CPT_IO_SIZE - current_byte,
			current_byte
		);

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			local_result,
			-1,
			"Should be able to write to a "
			"new class B file when locked"
		);

		current_byte += local_result;
	}

	current_byte = 0;

	while(current_byte < CPT_IO_SIZE) {
		local_result = pread(
			g_fd,
			&rd_buffer[current_byte],
			CPT_IO_SIZE - current_byte,
			current_byte
		);

		T_ASSERT_NE(
			local_result,
			-1,
			"Should be able to read from a "
			"new class B file when locked"
		);

		current_byte += local_result;
	}

	/* We should not be able to open a class B file under lock. */
	close(g_fd);
	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC),
		-1,
		"Should not be able to open a class B file when locked"
	);

	unlink(g_filepath);

	/* We still need to test directory semantics. */
	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_NE(
		mkdir(g_dirpath, 0x0777),
		-1,
		"Should be able to create a new directory when locked"
	);

	/* The newly created directory should not have a protection class. */
	T_ASSERT_NE(
		g_dir_fd = open(g_dirpath, O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC),
		-1,
		"Should be able to open an unclassed directory when locked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_TRUE(
		GET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd) == PROTECTION_CLASS_D ||
		GET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd) == PROTECTION_CLASS_DIR_NONE,
		"Directory protection class sholud be D or NONE"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_A),
		0,
		"Should be able to change a directory from "
		"class D to class A while locked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_D),
		0,
		"Should be able to change a directory from "
		"class A to class D while locked"
	);

	/*
	 * Do all files created in the directory properly inherit the
	 * directory's protection class?
	 */
	T_SETUPBEGIN;
	T_ASSERT_LT(
		strlcpy(g_filepath, g_dirpath, PATH_MAX),
		PATH_MAX,
		"Construct path for file in the directory"
	);
	T_ASSERT_LT(
		strlcat(g_filepath, "test_file", PATH_MAX),
		PATH_MAX,
		"Construct path for file in the directory"
	);
	T_SETUPEND;

	T_ASSERT_EQ(unlock_device(TEST_PASSCODE), 0, "*** Unlock device ***");

	for(
		new_prot_class = PROTECTION_CLASS_A;
		new_prot_class <= PROTECTION_CLASS_D;
		new_prot_class++
	) {
		int getclass_dir;

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			old_prot_class = GET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd),
			-1,
			"Get protection class for the directory"
		);

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_EQ(
			SET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd, new_prot_class),
			0,
			"Should be able to change directory "
			"protection from %s to %s",
			dp_class_num_to_string(old_prot_class),
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);

		T_EXPECT_EQ(
			getclass_dir = GET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd),
			new_prot_class,
			"Get protection class for the directory"
		);

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_GE(
			g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_CLOEXEC, 0777),
			0,
			"Should be able to create file in "
			"%s directory when unlocked",
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			local_result = GET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd),
			-1,
			"Get the new file's protection class"
		);

		T_ASSERT_EQ(
			local_result,
			new_prot_class,
			"File should have %s protection",
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);

		close(g_fd);
		unlink(g_filepath);
	}

	/* Do we disallow creation of a class F directory? */
	T_ASSERT_NE(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_F),
		0,
		"Should not be able to create class F directory"
	);

	/*
	 * Are class A and class B semantics followed for when
	 * we create these files during lock?
	 */
	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_A),
		0,
		"Should be able to change protection "
		"from class F to class A when unlocked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(lock_device(), 0, "*** Lock device ***");

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_CLOEXEC, 0777),
		-1,
		"Should not be able to create a new file "
		"in a class A directory when locked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(unlock_device(TEST_PASSCODE), 0, "*** Unlock device ***");

	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		SET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd, PROTECTION_CLASS_B),
		0,
		"Should be able to change directory "
		"from class A to class B when unlocked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(lock_device(), 0, "*** Lock device ***");

	T_ASSERT_GE(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC, 0777),
		0,
		"Should be able to create a new file "
		"in class B directory when locked"
	);

	T_ASSERT_NE(
		local_result = GET_PROT_CLASS(g_fd),
		-1,
		"Get the new file's protection class"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		local_result,
		PROTECTION_CLASS_B,
		"File should inherit protection class of class B directory"
	);

	/* What happens when we try to create new subdirectories? */
	T_ASSERT_EQ(unlock_device(TEST_PASSCODE), 0, "*** Unlock device ***");

	for(
		new_prot_class = PROTECTION_CLASS_A;
		new_prot_class <= PROTECTION_CLASS_D;
		new_prot_class++
	) {
		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_EQ(
			SET_PROT_CLASS(g_dir_fd, new_prot_class),
			0,
			"Change directory to %s",
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			mkdir(g_subdirpath, 0x0777),
			-1,
			"Create subdirectory in %s directory",
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);

		T_WITH_ERRNO;
		T_ASSERT_NE(
			g_subdir_fd = open(g_subdirpath, O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC),
			-1,
			"Should be able to open subdirectory in %s directory",
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);

		T_ASSERT_NE(
			local_result = GET_PROT_CLASS(g_subdir_fd),
			-1,
			"Get protection class of new subdirectory "
			"of %s directory",
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);

		T_ASSERT_EQ(
			local_result,
			new_prot_class,
			"New subdirectory should have same class as %s parent",
			dp_class_num_to_string(new_prot_class)
		);

		close(g_subdir_fd);
		rmdir(g_subdirpath);
	}
}

void
setup(void) {
	int ret = 0;
	int local_result = -1;

	T_SETUPBEGIN;

	T_ATEND(cleanup);

	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_NOTNULL(
		mkdtemp(g_test_tempdir),
		"Create temporary directory for test"
	);
	T_LOG("Test temp dir: %s", g_test_tempdir);

	T_ASSERT_NE(
		local_result = supports_content_prot(),
		-1,
		"Get content protection support status"
	);

	if(local_result == 0) {
		T_SKIP("Data protection not supported on this system");
	}

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		has_passcode(),
		0,
		"Device should not have existing passcode"
	);

	T_ASSERT_EQ(
		set_passcode(TEST_PASSCODE, NULL),
		0,
		"Set test passcode"
	);

	bzero(g_filepath, PATH_MAX);
	bzero(g_dirpath, PATH_MAX);
	bzero(g_subdirpath, PATH_MAX);

	ret |= (strlcat(g_filepath, g_test_tempdir, PATH_MAX) == PATH_MAX);
	ret |= (strlcat(g_filepath, "/", PATH_MAX) == PATH_MAX);
	ret |= (strlcpy(g_dirpath, g_filepath, PATH_MAX) == PATH_MAX);
	ret |= (strlcat(g_filepath, "test_file", PATH_MAX) == PATH_MAX);
	ret |= (strlcat(g_dirpath, "test_dir/", PATH_MAX) == PATH_MAX);
	ret |= (strlcpy(g_subdirpath, g_dirpath, PATH_MAX) == PATH_MAX);
	ret |= (strlcat(g_subdirpath, "test_subdir/", PATH_MAX) == PATH_MAX);

	T_QUIET;
	T_ASSERT_EQ(ret, 0, "Initialize test path strings");

	T_WITH_ERRNO;
	T_ASSERT_GE(
		g_fd = open(g_filepath, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC, 0777),
		0,
		"Create test file"
	);

	T_SETUPEND;
}

void
cleanup(void) {
	T_LOG("Cleaning up…");

	if(g_subdir_fd >= 0) {
		T_LOG("Cleanup: closing fd %d", g_subdir_fd);
		close(g_subdir_fd);
	}

	if(g_subdirpath[0]) {
		T_LOG("Cleanup: removing %s", g_subdirpath);
		rmdir(g_subdirpath);
	}

	if(g_fd >= 0) {
		T_LOG("Cleanup: closing fd %d", g_fd);
		close(g_fd);
	}

	if(g_filepath[0]) {
		T_LOG("Cleanup: removing %s", g_filepath);
		unlink(g_filepath);
	}

	if(g_dir_fd >= 0) {
		T_LOG("Cleanup: closing fd %d", g_dir_fd);
		close(g_dir_fd);
	}

	if(g_dirpath[0]) {
		T_LOG("Cleanup: removing %s", g_dirpath);
		rmdir(g_dirpath);
	}

	if(strcmp(g_test_tempdir, TEMP_DIR_TEMPLATE)) {
		T_LOG("Cleanup: removing %s", g_test_tempdir);
		rmdir(g_test_tempdir);
	}

	if(g_passcode_set) {
		T_LOG("Cleanup: unlocking device");
		if(unlock_device(TEST_PASSCODE)) {
			T_LOG("Warning: failed to unlock device in cleanup");
		}

		T_LOG("Cleanup: clearing passcode");
		if(clear_passcode(TEST_PASSCODE)) {
			T_LOG("Warning: failed to clear passcode in cleanup");
		}
	}
}

int
set_passcode(char * new_passcode, char * old_passcode) {
	int result = -1;

#ifdef KEYBAG_ENTITLEMENTS
	/* If we're entitled, we can set the passcode ourselves. */
	uint64_t inputs[] = {device_keybag_handle};
	uint32_t input_count = (sizeof(inputs) / sizeof(*inputs));
	void * input_structs = NULL;
	size_t input_struct_count = 0;
	char buffer[CPT_AKS_BUF_SIZE];
	char * buffer_ptr = buffer;
	uint32_t old_passcode_len = 0;
	uint32_t new_passcode_len = 0;

	T_LOG("%s(): using keybag entitlements", __func__);

	old_passcode_len = strnlen(old_passcode, CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN);
	new_passcode_len = strnlen(new_passcode, CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN);

	if((old_passcode == NULL) || (old_passcode_len == CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN)) {
		old_passcode = "";
		old_passcode_len = 0;
	}
	if((new_passcode == NULL) || (new_passcode_len == CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN)) {
		new_passcode = "";
		new_passcode_len = 0;
	}

	*((uint32_t *) buffer_ptr) = ((uint32_t) 2);
	buffer_ptr += sizeof(uint32_t);

	*((uint32_t *) buffer_ptr) = old_passcode_len;
	buffer_ptr += sizeof(uint32_t);

	memcpy(buffer_ptr, old_passcode, old_passcode_len);
	buffer_ptr += ((old_passcode_len + sizeof(uint32_t) - 1) &
		~(sizeof(uint32_t) - 1));

	*((uint32_t *) buffer_ptr) = new_passcode_len;
	buffer_ptr += sizeof(uint32_t);

	memcpy(buffer_ptr, new_passcode, new_passcode_len);
	buffer_ptr += ((new_passcode_len + sizeof(uint32_t) - 1) &
		~(sizeof(uint32_t) - 1));

	input_structs = buffer;
	input_struct_count = (buffer_ptr - buffer);

	result = apple_key_store(
		kAppleKeyStoreKeyBagSetPasscode,
		inputs,
		input_count,
		input_structs,
		input_struct_count,
		NULL,
		NULL
	);
#else
	/*
	 * If we aren't entitled, we'll need to use
	 * keystorectl to set the passcode.
	 */
	T_LOG("%s(): using keystorectl", __func__);

	if(
		(old_passcode == NULL) ||
		(strnlen(old_passcode, CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN) == CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN)
	) {
		old_passcode = "";
	}

	if(
		(new_passcode == NULL) ||
		(strnlen(new_passcode, CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN) == CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN)
	) {
		new_passcode = "";
	}

	char * const keystorectl_args[] = {
		KEYSTORECTL_PATH,
		"change-password",
		old_passcode,
		new_passcode,
		NULL
	};
	result = spawn_proc(keystorectl_args);
#endif /* KEYBAG_ENTITLEMENTS */
	if(result == 0 && new_passcode != NULL) {
		g_passcode_set = 1;
	} else if(result == 0 && new_passcode == NULL) {
		g_passcode_set = 0;
	}

	return(result);
}

int
clear_passcode(char * passcode) {
	/*
	 * For the moment, this will set the passcode to the empty string
	 * (a known value); this will most likely need to change, or running
	 * this test may ruin everything™
	 */
	return set_passcode(NULL, passcode);
}

int
has_passcode(void) {
	return set_passcode(NULL, NULL);
}

int
lock_device(void) {
	int result = -1;

	/*
	 * Pass in the path to keybagdTest instead. By doing this, we bypass
	 * the shortcut to get in to the keybag via IOKit and instead use the
	 * pre-existing command line tool.
	 *
	 * This also goes through the normal "lock → locking (10s) → locked"
	 * flow that would normally occuring during system runtime when the
	 * lock button is depressed. To ensure that our single threaded test
	 * works properly in this case, poll until we can't create a class A
	 * file to be safe.
	 */
	char * const kbd_args[] = {KEYBAGDTEST_PATH, "lock", NULL};
	result = spawn_proc(kbd_args);
	if(result) {
		return result;
	}

	/*
	 * Delete the file if it is present. Note that this may fail if the
	 * file is actually not there. So don't bomb out if we can't delete
	 * this file right now.
	 */
	(void) unlink("/private/var/foo_test_file");

	while(1) {
		int dp_fd;

		dp_fd = open_dprotected_np(
			"/private/var/foo_test_file",
			O_RDWR|O_CREAT,
			PROTECTION_CLASS_A,
			0
		);

		if(dp_fd >= 0) {
			/* delete it and sleep */
			close(dp_fd);
			result = unlink("/private/var/foo_test_file");

			if(result) {
				return result;
			}

			sync();
			sleep(1);
		} else {
			/* drop out of our polling loop. */
			break;
		}
	}

	/*
	 * Note that our loop breakout condition is whether or not we can
	 * create a class A file, so that loop may execute up to 10 times
	 * (due to the 10s grace period). By the time we get here, we assume
	 * that we didn't hit any of the error cases above.
	 */

	return 0;
}

int
unlock_device(char * passcode) {
	int result = -1;

#ifdef  KEYBAG_ENTITLEMENTS
	/* If we're entitled, we can unlock the device ourselves. */
	uint64_t inputs[] = {device_keybag_handle};
	uint32_t input_count = (sizeof(inputs) / sizeof(*inputs));
	size_t input_struct_count = 0;

	T_LOG("%s(): using keybag entitlements", __func__);

	input_struct_count = strnlen(passcode, CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN);
	if((passcode == NULL) || (input_struct_count == CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN)) {
		passcode = "";
		input_struct_count = 0;
	}

	result = apple_key_store(
		kAppleKeyStoreKeyBagUnlock,
		inputs,
		input_count,
		passcode,
		input_struct_count,
		NULL,
		NULL
	);
#else
	/*
	 * If we aren't entitled, we'll need to use
	 * keystorectl to unlock the device.
	 */
	T_LOG("%s(): using keystorectl", __func__);

	if(
		(passcode == NULL) ||
		(strnlen(passcode, CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN) == CPT_MAX_PASS_LEN)
	) {
		passcode = "";
	}

	char * const keystorectl_args[] = {
		KEYSTORECTL_PATH, "unlock", passcode, NULL
	};

	result = spawn_proc(keystorectl_args);
#endif /* KEYBAG_ENTITLEMENTS */

	return(result);
}

/*
 * Code based on Mobile Key Bag; specifically
 * MKBDeviceSupportsContentProtection and
 * MKBDeviceFormattedForContentProtection.
 *
 * We want to verify that we support content protection, and that
 * we are formatted for it.
 */
int
supports_content_prot(void) {
	int local_result = -1;
	int result = -1;
	uint32_t buffer_size = 1;
	char buffer[buffer_size];
	io_registry_entry_t defaults = IO_OBJECT_NULL;
	kern_return_t k_result = KERN_FAILURE;
	struct statfs statfs_results;

	defaults = IORegistryEntryFromPath(
		kIOMasterPortDefault,
		kIODeviceTreePlane ":/defaults"
	);

	if(defaults == IO_OBJECT_NULL) {
		/* Assume data protection is unsupported */
		T_LOG(
			"%s(): no defaults entry in IORegistry",
			__func__
		);
		return 0;
	}

	k_result = IORegistryEntryGetProperty(
		defaults,
		"content-protect",
		buffer,
		&buffer_size
	);

	if(k_result != KERN_SUCCESS) {
		/* Assume data protection is unsupported */
		T_LOG(
			"%s(): no content-protect property in IORegistry",
			__func__
		);
		return 0;
	}

	/*
	 * At this point, we SUPPORT content protection… but are we
	 * formatted for it? This is ugly; we should be testing the file
	 * system we'll be testing in, not just /tmp/.
	 */
	local_result = statfs(g_test_tempdir, &statfs_results);

	if(local_result == -1) {
		T_LOG(
			"%s(): failed to statfs the test directory, errno = %s",
			__func__, strerror(errno)
		);
		return -1;
	} else if(statfs_results.f_flags & MNT_CPROTECT) {
		return 1;
	} else {
		T_LOG(
			"%s(): filesystem not formatted for data protection",
			__func__
		);
		return 0;
	}
}

/*
 * Shamelessly ripped from keystorectl routines;
 * a wrapper for invoking the AKS user client.
 */
int
apple_key_store(uint32_t command,
                uint64_t * inputs,
                uint32_t input_count,
                void * input_structs,
                size_t input_struct_count,
                uint64_t * outputs,
                uint32_t * output_count) {
	int result = -1;
	io_connect_t connection = IO_OBJECT_NULL;
	io_registry_entry_t apple_key_bag_service = IO_OBJECT_NULL;
	kern_return_t k_result = KERN_FAILURE;
	IOReturn io_result = IO_OBJECT_NULL;

	apple_key_bag_service = IOServiceGetMatchingService(
		kIOMasterPortDefault,
		IOServiceMatching(kAppleKeyStoreServiceName)
	);
	if(apple_key_bag_service == IO_OBJECT_NULL) {
		T_LOG(
			"%s: failed to match kAppleKeyStoreServiceName",
			__func__
		);
		goto end;
	}

	k_result = IOServiceOpen(
		apple_key_bag_service,
		mach_task_self(),
		0,
		&connection
	);
	if(k_result != KERN_SUCCESS) {
		T_LOG(
			"%s: failed to open AppleKeyStore: "
			"IOServiceOpen() returned %d",
			__func__, k_result
		);
		goto end;
	}

	k_result = IOConnectCallMethod(
		connection,
		kAppleKeyStoreUserClientOpen,
		NULL, 0, NULL, 0, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL
	);
	if(k_result != KERN_SUCCESS) {
		T_LOG(
			"%s: call to AppleKeyStore method "
			"kAppleKeyStoreUserClientOpen failed",
			__func__
		);
		goto close;
	}

	io_result = IOConnectCallMethod(
		connection, command, inputs, input_count, input_structs,
		input_struct_count, outputs, output_count, NULL, NULL
	);
	if(io_result != kIOReturnSuccess) {
		T_LOG("%s: call to AppleKeyStore method %d failed", __func__);
		goto close;
	}

	result = 0;

close:
	IOServiceClose(apple_key_bag_service);
end:
	return(result);
}

/*
 * Helper function for launching tools
 */
int
spawn_proc(char * const command[]) {
	pid_t pid           = 0;
	int launch_tool_ret = 0;
	bool waitpid_ret    = true;
	int status          = 0;
	int signal          = 0;
	int timeout         = 30;

	launch_tool_ret = dt_launch_tool(&pid, command, false, NULL, NULL);
	T_EXPECT_EQ(launch_tool_ret, 0, "launch tool: %s", command[0]);
	if(launch_tool_ret != 0) {
		return 1;
	}

	waitpid_ret = dt_waitpid(pid, &status, &signal, timeout);
	T_EXPECT_TRUE(waitpid_ret, "%s should succeed", command[0]);
	if(waitpid_ret == false) {
		if(status != 0) {
			T_LOG("%s exited %d", command[0], status);
		}
		if(signal != 0) {
			T_LOG("%s received signal %d", command[0], signal);
		}
		return 1;
	}

	return 0;
}

char*
dp_class_num_to_string(int num) {
	switch(num) {
		case 0:
			return "unclassed";
		case PROTECTION_CLASS_A:
			return "class A";
		case PROTECTION_CLASS_B:
			return "class B";
		case PROTECTION_CLASS_C:
			return "class C";
		case PROTECTION_CLASS_D:
			return "class D";
		case PROTECTION_CLASS_E:
			return "class E";
		case PROTECTION_CLASS_F:
			return "class F";
		default:
			return "<unknown class>";
	}
}

#if 0
int device_lock_state(void) {
	/*
	 * TODO: Actually implement this.
	 *
	 * We fail if a passcode already exists, and the methods being used
	 * to lock/unlock the device in this test appear to be synchronous…
	 * do we need this function?
	 */
	int result = -1;

	return(result);
}

/* Determines if we will try to test class C semanatics. */
int unlocked_since_boot() {
	/*
	 * TODO: Actually implement this.
	 *
	 * The actual semantics for CP mean that even with this primative,
	 * we would need to set a passcode and then reboot the device in
	 * order to test this; this function will probably be rather
	 * worthless as a result.
	 */
	int result = 1;

	return(result);
}
#endif