This is xnu-8019. See this file in:
/*
 * Copyright (c) 1999-2019 Apple Inc.  All Rights Reserved.
 *
 * @APPLE_LICENSE_HEADER_START@
 * 
 * This file contains Original Code and/or Modifications of Original Code
 * as defined in and that are subject to the Apple Public Source License
 * Version 2.0 (the 'License'). You may not use this file except in
 * compliance with the License. Please obtain a copy of the License at
 * http://www.opensource.apple.com/apsl/ and read it before using this
 * file.
 * 
 * The Original Code and all software distributed under the License are
 * distributed on an 'AS IS' basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
 * EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND APPLE HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL SUCH WARRANTIES,
 * INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, QUIET ENJOYMENT OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.
 * Please see the License for the specific language governing rights and
 * limitations under the License.
 * 
 * @APPLE_LICENSE_HEADER_END@
 */
#ifndef _MACHO_LOADER_H_
#define _MACHO_LOADER_H_

/*
 * This file describes the format of mach object files.
 */
#include <stdint.h>

/*
 * <mach/machine.h> is needed here for the cpu_type_t and cpu_subtype_t types
 * and contains the constants for the possible values of these types.
 */
#include <mach/machine.h>

/*
 * <mach/vm_prot.h> is needed here for the vm_prot_t type and contains the 
 * constants that are or'ed together for the possible values of this type.
 */
#include <mach/vm_prot.h>

/*
 * <machine/thread_status.h> is expected to define the flavors of the thread
 * states and the structures of those flavors for each machine.
 */
#include <mach/machine/thread_status.h>
#include <architecture/byte_order.h>

/*
 * The 32-bit mach header appears at the very beginning of the object file for
 * 32-bit architectures.
 */
struct mach_header {
	uint32_t	magic;		/* mach magic number identifier */
	cpu_type_t	cputype;	/* cpu specifier */
	cpu_subtype_t	cpusubtype;	/* machine specifier */
	uint32_t	filetype;	/* type of file */
	uint32_t	ncmds;		/* number of load commands */
	uint32_t	sizeofcmds;	/* the size of all the load commands */
	uint32_t	flags;		/* flags */
};

/* Constant for the magic field of the mach_header (32-bit architectures) */
#define	MH_MAGIC	0xfeedface	/* the mach magic number */
#define MH_CIGAM	0xcefaedfe	/* NXSwapInt(MH_MAGIC) */

/*
 * The 64-bit mach header appears at the very beginning of object files for
 * 64-bit architectures.
 */
struct mach_header_64 {
	uint32_t	magic;		/* mach magic number identifier */
	cpu_type_t	cputype;	/* cpu specifier */
	cpu_subtype_t	cpusubtype;	/* machine specifier */
	uint32_t	filetype;	/* type of file */
	uint32_t	ncmds;		/* number of load commands */
	uint32_t	sizeofcmds;	/* the size of all the load commands */
	uint32_t	flags;		/* flags */
	uint32_t	reserved;	/* reserved */
};

/* Constant for the magic field of the mach_header_64 (64-bit architectures) */
#define MH_MAGIC_64 0xfeedfacf /* the 64-bit mach magic number */
#define MH_CIGAM_64 0xcffaedfe /* NXSwapInt(MH_MAGIC_64) */

/*
 * The layout of the file depends on the filetype.  For all but the MH_OBJECT
 * file type the segments are padded out and aligned on a segment alignment
 * boundary for efficient demand pageing.  The MH_EXECUTE, MH_FVMLIB, MH_DYLIB,
 * MH_DYLINKER and MH_BUNDLE file types also have the headers included as part
 * of their first segment.
 * 
 * The file type MH_OBJECT is a compact format intended as output of the
 * assembler and input (and possibly output) of the link editor (the .o
 * format).  All sections are in one unnamed segment with no segment padding. 
 * This format is used as an executable format when the file is so small the
 * segment padding greatly increases its size.
 *
 * The file type MH_PRELOAD is an executable format intended for things that
 * are not executed under the kernel (proms, stand alones, kernels, etc).  The
 * format can be executed under the kernel but may demand paged it and not
 * preload it before execution.
 *
 * A core file is in MH_CORE format and can be any in an arbritray legal
 * Mach-O file.
 *
 * Constants for the filetype field of the mach_header
 */
#define	MH_OBJECT	0x1		/* relocatable object file */
#define	MH_EXECUTE	0x2		/* demand paged executable file */
#define	MH_FVMLIB	0x3		/* fixed VM shared library file */
#define	MH_CORE		0x4		/* core file */
#define	MH_PRELOAD	0x5		/* preloaded executable file */
#define	MH_DYLIB	0x6		/* dynamically bound shared library */
#define	MH_DYLINKER	0x7		/* dynamic link editor */
#define	MH_BUNDLE	0x8		/* dynamically bound bundle file */
#define	MH_DYLIB_STUB	0x9		/* shared library stub for static */
					/*  linking only, no section contents */
#define	MH_DSYM		0xa		/* companion file with only debug */
					/*  sections */
#define	MH_KEXT_BUNDLE	0xb		/* x86_64 kexts */
#define	MH_FILESET	0xc		/* set of mach-o's */

/* Constants for the flags field of the mach_header */
#define	MH_NOUNDEFS	0x1		/* the object file has no undefined
					   references */
#define	MH_INCRLINK	0x2		/* the object file is the output of an
					   incremental link against a base file
					   and can't be link edited again */
#define MH_DYLDLINK	0x4		/* the object file is input for the
					   dynamic linker and can't be staticly
					   link edited again */
#define MH_BINDATLOAD	0x8		/* the object file's undefined
					   references are bound by the dynamic
					   linker when loaded. */
#define MH_PREBOUND	0x10		/* the file has its dynamic undefined
					   references prebound. */
#define MH_SPLIT_SEGS	0x20		/* the file has its read-only and
					   read-write segments split */
#define MH_LAZY_INIT	0x40		/* the shared library init routine is
					   to be run lazily via catching memory
					   faults to its writeable segments
					   (obsolete) */
#define MH_TWOLEVEL	0x80		/* the image is using two-level name
					   space bindings */
#define MH_FORCE_FLAT	0x100		/* the executable is forcing all images
					   to use flat name space bindings */
#define MH_NOMULTIDEFS	0x200		/* this umbrella guarantees no multiple
					   defintions of symbols in its
					   sub-images so the two-level namespace
					   hints can always be used. */
#define MH_NOFIXPREBINDING 0x400	/* do not have dyld notify the
					   prebinding agent about this
					   executable */
#define MH_PREBINDABLE  0x800           /* the binary is not prebound but can
					   have its prebinding redone. only used
                                           when MH_PREBOUND is not set. */
#define MH_ALLMODSBOUND 0x1000		/* indicates that this binary binds to
                                           all two-level namespace modules of
					   its dependent libraries. only used
					   when MH_PREBINDABLE and MH_TWOLEVEL
					   are both set. */ 
#define MH_SUBSECTIONS_VIA_SYMBOLS 0x2000/* safe to divide up the sections into
					    sub-sections via symbols for dead
					    code stripping */
#define MH_CANONICAL    0x4000		/* the binary has been canonicalized
					   via the unprebind operation */
#define MH_WEAK_DEFINES	0x8000		/* the final linked image contains
					   external weak symbols */
#define MH_BINDS_TO_WEAK 0x10000	/* the final linked image uses
					   weak symbols */

#define MH_ALLOW_STACK_EXECUTION 0x20000/* When this bit is set, all stacks 
					   in the task will be given stack
					   execution privilege.  Only used in
					   MH_EXECUTE filetypes. */
#define MH_ROOT_SAFE 0x40000           /* When this bit is set, the binary 
					  declares it is safe for use in
					  processes with uid zero */
                                         
#define MH_SETUID_SAFE 0x80000         /* When this bit is set, the binary 
					  declares it is safe for use in
					  processes when issetugid() is true */

#define MH_NO_REEXPORTED_DYLIBS 0x100000 /* When this bit is set on a dylib, 
					  the static linker does not need to
					  examine dependent dylibs to see
					  if any are re-exported */
#define	MH_PIE 0x200000			/* When this bit is set, the OS will
					   load the main executable at a
					   random address.  Only used in
					   MH_EXECUTE filetypes. */
#define	MH_DEAD_STRIPPABLE_DYLIB 0x400000 /* Only for use on dylibs.  When
					     linking against a dylib that
					     has this bit set, the static linker
					     will automatically not create a
					     LC_LOAD_DYLIB load command to the
					     dylib if no symbols are being
					     referenced from the dylib. */
#define MH_HAS_TLV_DESCRIPTORS 0x800000 /* Contains a section of type 
					    S_THREAD_LOCAL_VARIABLES */

#define MH_NO_HEAP_EXECUTION 0x1000000	/* When this bit is set, the OS will
					   run the main executable with
					   a non-executable heap even on
					   platforms (e.g. i386) that don't
					   require it. Only used in MH_EXECUTE
					   filetypes. */

#define MH_APP_EXTENSION_SAFE 0x02000000 /* The code was linked for use in an
					    application extension. */

#define	MH_NLIST_OUTOFSYNC_WITH_DYLDINFO 0x04000000 /* The external symbols
					   listed in the nlist symbol table do
					   not include all the symbols listed in
					   the dyld info. */

#define	MH_SIM_SUPPORT 0x08000000	/* Allow LC_MIN_VERSION_MACOS and
					   LC_BUILD_VERSION load commands with
					   the platforms macOS, iOSMac,
					   iOSSimulator, tvOSSimulator and
					   watchOSSimulator. */

#define MH_DYLIB_IN_CACHE 0x80000000	/* Only for use on dylibs. When this bit
					   is set, the dylib is part of the dyld
					   shared cache, rather than loose in
					   the filesystem. */

/*
 * The load commands directly follow the mach_header.  The total size of all
 * of the commands is given by the sizeofcmds field in the mach_header.  All
 * load commands must have as their first two fields cmd and cmdsize.  The cmd
 * field is filled in with a constant for that command type.  Each command type
 * has a structure specifically for it.  The cmdsize field is the size in bytes
 * of the particular load command structure plus anything that follows it that
 * is a part of the load command (i.e. section structures, strings, etc.).  To
 * advance to the next load command the cmdsize can be added to the offset or
 * pointer of the current load command.  The cmdsize for 32-bit architectures
 * MUST be a multiple of 4 bytes and for 64-bit architectures MUST be a multiple
 * of 8 bytes (these are forever the maximum alignment of any load commands).
 * The padded bytes must be zero.  All tables in the object file must also
 * follow these rules so the file can be memory mapped.  Otherwise the pointers
 * to these tables will not work well or at all on some machines.  With all
 * padding zeroed like objects will compare byte for byte.
 */
struct load_command {
	uint32_t cmd;		/* type of load command */
	uint32_t cmdsize;	/* total size of command in bytes */
};

/*
 * After MacOS X 10.1 when a new load command is added that is required to be
 * understood by the dynamic linker for the image to execute properly the
 * LC_REQ_DYLD bit will be or'ed into the load command constant.  If the dynamic
 * linker sees such a load command it it does not understand will issue a
 * "unknown load command required for execution" error and refuse to use the
 * image.  Other load commands without this bit that are not understood will
 * simply be ignored.
 */
#define LC_REQ_DYLD 0x80000000

/* Constants for the cmd field of all load commands, the type */
#define	LC_SEGMENT	0x1	/* segment of this file to be mapped */
#define	LC_SYMTAB	0x2	/* link-edit stab symbol table info */
#define	LC_SYMSEG	0x3	/* link-edit gdb symbol table info (obsolete) */
#define	LC_THREAD	0x4	/* thread */
#define	LC_UNIXTHREAD	0x5	/* unix thread (includes a stack) */
#define	LC_LOADFVMLIB	0x6	/* load a specified fixed VM shared library */
#define	LC_IDFVMLIB	0x7	/* fixed VM shared library identification */
#define	LC_IDENT	0x8	/* object identification info (obsolete) */
#define LC_FVMFILE	0x9	/* fixed VM file inclusion (internal use) */
#define LC_PREPAGE      0xa     /* prepage command (internal use) */
#define	LC_DYSYMTAB	0xb	/* dynamic link-edit symbol table info */
#define	LC_LOAD_DYLIB	0xc	/* load a dynamically linked shared library */
#define	LC_ID_DYLIB	0xd	/* dynamically linked shared lib ident */
#define LC_LOAD_DYLINKER 0xe	/* load a dynamic linker */
#define LC_ID_DYLINKER	0xf	/* dynamic linker identification */
#define	LC_PREBOUND_DYLIB 0x10	/* modules prebound for a dynamically */
				/*  linked shared library */
#define	LC_ROUTINES	0x11	/* image routines */
#define	LC_SUB_FRAMEWORK 0x12	/* sub framework */
#define	LC_SUB_UMBRELLA 0x13	/* sub umbrella */
#define	LC_SUB_CLIENT	0x14	/* sub client */
#define	LC_SUB_LIBRARY  0x15	/* sub library */
#define	LC_TWOLEVEL_HINTS 0x16	/* two-level namespace lookup hints */
#define	LC_PREBIND_CKSUM  0x17	/* prebind checksum */

/*
 * load a dynamically linked shared library that is allowed to be missing
 * (all symbols are weak imported).
 */
#define	LC_LOAD_WEAK_DYLIB (0x18 | LC_REQ_DYLD)

#define	LC_SEGMENT_64	0x19	/* 64-bit segment of this file to be
				   mapped */
#define	LC_ROUTINES_64	0x1a	/* 64-bit image routines */
#define LC_UUID		0x1b	/* the uuid */
#define LC_RPATH       (0x1c | LC_REQ_DYLD)    /* runpath additions */
#define LC_CODE_SIGNATURE 0x1d	/* local of code signature */
#define LC_SEGMENT_SPLIT_INFO 0x1e /* local of info to split segments */
#define LC_REEXPORT_DYLIB (0x1f | LC_REQ_DYLD) /* load and re-export dylib */
#define	LC_LAZY_LOAD_DYLIB 0x20	/* delay load of dylib until first use */
#define	LC_ENCRYPTION_INFO 0x21	/* encrypted segment information */
#define	LC_DYLD_INFO 	0x22	/* compressed dyld information */
#define	LC_DYLD_INFO_ONLY (0x22|LC_REQ_DYLD)	/* compressed dyld information only */
#define	LC_LOAD_UPWARD_DYLIB (0x23 | LC_REQ_DYLD) /* load upward dylib */
#define LC_VERSION_MIN_MACOSX 0x24   /* build for MacOSX min OS version */
#define LC_VERSION_MIN_IPHONEOS 0x25 /* build for iPhoneOS min OS version */
#define LC_FUNCTION_STARTS 0x26 /* compressed table of function start addresses */
#define LC_DYLD_ENVIRONMENT 0x27 /* string for dyld to treat
				    like environment variable */
#define LC_MAIN (0x28|LC_REQ_DYLD) /* replacement for LC_UNIXTHREAD */
#define LC_DATA_IN_CODE 0x29 /* table of non-instructions in __text */
#define LC_SOURCE_VERSION 0x2A /* source version used to build binary */
#define LC_DYLIB_CODE_SIGN_DRS 0x2B /* Code signing DRs copied from linked dylibs */
#define	LC_ENCRYPTION_INFO_64 0x2C /* 64-bit encrypted segment information */
#define LC_LINKER_OPTION 0x2D /* linker options in MH_OBJECT files */
#define LC_LINKER_OPTIMIZATION_HINT 0x2E /* optimization hints in MH_OBJECT files */
#define LC_VERSION_MIN_TVOS 0x2F /* build for AppleTV min OS version */
#define LC_VERSION_MIN_WATCHOS 0x30 /* build for Watch min OS version */
#define LC_NOTE 0x31 /* arbitrary data included within a Mach-O file */
#define LC_BUILD_VERSION 0x32 /* build for platform min OS version */
#define LC_DYLD_EXPORTS_TRIE (0x33 | LC_REQ_DYLD) /* used with linkedit_data_command, payload is trie */
#define LC_DYLD_CHAINED_FIXUPS (0x34 | LC_REQ_DYLD) /* used with linkedit_data_command */
#define LC_FILESET_ENTRY      (0x35 | LC_REQ_DYLD) /* used with fileset_entry_command */

/*
 * A variable length string in a load command is represented by an lc_str
 * union.  The strings are stored just after the load command structure and
 * the offset is from the start of the load command structure.  The size
 * of the string is reflected in the cmdsize field of the load command.
 * Once again any padded bytes to bring the cmdsize field to a multiple
 * of 4 bytes must be zero.
 */
union lc_str {
	uint32_t	offset;	/* offset to the string */
#ifndef __LP64__
	char		*ptr;	/* pointer to the string */
#endif 
};

/*
 * The segment load command indicates that a part of this file is to be
 * mapped into the task's address space.  The size of this segment in memory,
 * vmsize, maybe equal to or larger than the amount to map from this file,
 * filesize.  The file is mapped starting at fileoff to the beginning of
 * the segment in memory, vmaddr.  The rest of the memory of the segment,
 * if any, is allocated zero fill on demand.  The segment's maximum virtual
 * memory protection and initial virtual memory protection are specified
 * by the maxprot and initprot fields.  If the segment has sections then the
 * section structures directly follow the segment command and their size is
 * reflected in cmdsize.
 */
struct segment_command { /* for 32-bit architectures */
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_SEGMENT */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes sizeof section structs */
	char		segname[16];	/* segment name */
	uint32_t	vmaddr;		/* memory address of this segment */
	uint32_t	vmsize;		/* memory size of this segment */
	uint32_t	fileoff;	/* file offset of this segment */
	uint32_t	filesize;	/* amount to map from the file */
	vm_prot_t	maxprot;	/* maximum VM protection */
	vm_prot_t	initprot;	/* initial VM protection */
	uint32_t	nsects;		/* number of sections in segment */
	uint32_t	flags;		/* flags */
};

/*
 * The 64-bit segment load command indicates that a part of this file is to be
 * mapped into a 64-bit task's address space.  If the 64-bit segment has
 * sections then section_64 structures directly follow the 64-bit segment
 * command and their size is reflected in cmdsize.
 */
struct segment_command_64 { /* for 64-bit architectures */
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_SEGMENT_64 */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes sizeof section_64 structs */
	char		segname[16];	/* segment name */
	uint64_t	vmaddr;		/* memory address of this segment */
	uint64_t	vmsize;		/* memory size of this segment */
	uint64_t	fileoff;	/* file offset of this segment */
	uint64_t	filesize;	/* amount to map from the file */
	vm_prot_t	maxprot;	/* maximum VM protection */
	vm_prot_t	initprot;	/* initial VM protection */
	uint32_t	nsects;		/* number of sections in segment */
	uint32_t	flags;		/* flags */
};

/* Constants for the flags field of the segment_command */
#define	SG_HIGHVM	0x1	/* the file contents for this segment is for
				   the high part of the VM space, the low part
				   is zero filled (for stacks in core files) */
#define	SG_FVMLIB	0x2	/* this segment is the VM that is allocated by
				   a fixed VM library, for overlap checking in
				   the link editor */
#define	SG_NORELOC	0x4	/* this segment has nothing that was relocated
				   in it and nothing relocated to it, that is
				   it maybe safely replaced without relocation*/
#define SG_PROTECTED_VERSION_1	0x8 /* This segment is protected.  If the
				       segment starts at file offset 0, the
				       first page of the segment is not
				       protected.  All other pages of the
				       segment are protected. */
#define SG_READ_ONLY    0x10 /* This segment is made read-only after fixups */



/*
 * A segment is made up of zero or more sections.  Non-MH_OBJECT files have
 * all of their segments with the proper sections in each, and padded to the
 * specified segment alignment when produced by the link editor.  The first
 * segment of a MH_EXECUTE and MH_FVMLIB format file contains the mach_header
 * and load commands of the object file before its first section.  The zero
 * fill sections are always last in their segment (in all formats).  This
 * allows the zeroed segment padding to be mapped into memory where zero fill
 * sections might be. The gigabyte zero fill sections, those with the section
 * type S_GB_ZEROFILL, can only be in a segment with sections of this type.
 * These segments are then placed after all other segments.
 *
 * The MH_OBJECT format has all of its sections in one segment for
 * compactness.  There is no padding to a specified segment boundary and the
 * mach_header and load commands are not part of the segment.
 *
 * Sections with the same section name, sectname, going into the same segment,
 * segname, are combined by the link editor.  The resulting section is aligned
 * to the maximum alignment of the combined sections and is the new section's
 * alignment.  The combined sections are aligned to their original alignment in
 * the combined section.  Any padded bytes to get the specified alignment are
 * zeroed.
 *
 * The format of the relocation entries referenced by the reloff and nreloc
 * fields of the section structure for mach object files is described in the
 * header file <reloc.h>.
 */
struct section { /* for 32-bit architectures */
	char		sectname[16];	/* name of this section */
	char		segname[16];	/* segment this section goes in */
	uint32_t	addr;		/* memory address of this section */
	uint32_t	size;		/* size in bytes of this section */
	uint32_t	offset;		/* file offset of this section */
	uint32_t	align;		/* section alignment (power of 2) */
	uint32_t	reloff;		/* file offset of relocation entries */
	uint32_t	nreloc;		/* number of relocation entries */
	uint32_t	flags;		/* flags (section type and attributes)*/
	uint32_t	reserved1;	/* reserved (for offset or index) */
	uint32_t	reserved2;	/* reserved (for count or sizeof) */
};

struct section_64 { /* for 64-bit architectures */
	char		sectname[16];	/* name of this section */
	char		segname[16];	/* segment this section goes in */
	uint64_t	addr;		/* memory address of this section */
	uint64_t	size;		/* size in bytes of this section */
	uint32_t	offset;		/* file offset of this section */
	uint32_t	align;		/* section alignment (power of 2) */
	uint32_t	reloff;		/* file offset of relocation entries */
	uint32_t	nreloc;		/* number of relocation entries */
	uint32_t	flags;		/* flags (section type and attributes)*/
	uint32_t	reserved1;	/* reserved (for offset or index) */
	uint32_t	reserved2;	/* reserved (for count or sizeof) */
	uint32_t	reserved3;	/* reserved */
};

/*
 * The flags field of a section structure is separated into two parts a section
 * type and section attributes.  The section types are mutually exclusive (it
 * can only have one type) but the section attributes are not (it may have more
 * than one attribute).
 */
#define SECTION_TYPE		 0x000000ff	/* 256 section types */
#define SECTION_ATTRIBUTES	 0xffffff00	/*  24 section attributes */

/* Constants for the type of a section */
#define	S_REGULAR		0x0	/* regular section */
#define	S_ZEROFILL		0x1	/* zero fill on demand section */
#define	S_CSTRING_LITERALS	0x2	/* section with only literal C strings*/
#define	S_4BYTE_LITERALS	0x3	/* section with only 4 byte literals */
#define	S_8BYTE_LITERALS	0x4	/* section with only 8 byte literals */
#define	S_LITERAL_POINTERS	0x5	/* section with only pointers to */
					/*  literals */
/*
 * For the two types of symbol pointers sections and the symbol stubs section
 * they have indirect symbol table entries.  For each of the entries in the
 * section the indirect symbol table entries, in corresponding order in the
 * indirect symbol table, start at the index stored in the reserved1 field
 * of the section structure.  Since the indirect symbol table entries
 * correspond to the entries in the section the number of indirect symbol table
 * entries is inferred from the size of the section divided by the size of the
 * entries in the section.  For symbol pointers sections the size of the entries
 * in the section is 4 bytes and for symbol stubs sections the byte size of the
 * stubs is stored in the reserved2 field of the section structure.
 */
#define	S_NON_LAZY_SYMBOL_POINTERS	0x6	/* section with only non-lazy
						   symbol pointers */
#define	S_LAZY_SYMBOL_POINTERS		0x7	/* section with only lazy symbol
						   pointers */
#define	S_SYMBOL_STUBS			0x8	/* section with only symbol
						   stubs, byte size of stub in
						   the reserved2 field */
#define	S_MOD_INIT_FUNC_POINTERS	0x9	/* section with only function
						   pointers for initialization*/
#define	S_MOD_TERM_FUNC_POINTERS	0xa	/* section with only function
						   pointers for termination */
#define	S_COALESCED			0xb	/* section contains symbols that
						   are to be coalesced */
#define	S_GB_ZEROFILL			0xc	/* zero fill on demand section
						   (that can be larger than 4
						   gigabytes) */
#define	S_INTERPOSING			0xd	/* section with only pairs of
						   function pointers for
						   interposing */
#define	S_16BYTE_LITERALS		0xe	/* section with only 16 byte
						   literals */
#define	S_DTRACE_DOF			0xf	/* section contains 
						   DTrace Object Format */
#define	S_LAZY_DYLIB_SYMBOL_POINTERS	0x10	/* section with only lazy
						   symbol pointers to lazy
						   loaded dylibs */
/*
 * Section types to support thread local variables
 */
#define S_THREAD_LOCAL_REGULAR                   0x11  /* template of initial 
							  values for TLVs */
#define S_THREAD_LOCAL_ZEROFILL                  0x12  /* template of initial 
							  values for TLVs */
#define S_THREAD_LOCAL_VARIABLES                 0x13  /* TLV descriptors */
#define S_THREAD_LOCAL_VARIABLE_POINTERS         0x14  /* pointers to TLV 
                                                          descriptors */
#define S_THREAD_LOCAL_INIT_FUNCTION_POINTERS    0x15  /* functions to call
							  to initialize TLV
							  values */
#define S_INIT_FUNC_OFFSETS                      0x16  /* 32-bit offsets to
							  initializers */

/*
 * Constants for the section attributes part of the flags field of a section
 * structure.
 */
#define SECTION_ATTRIBUTES_USR	 0xff000000	/* User setable attributes */
#define S_ATTR_PURE_INSTRUCTIONS 0x80000000	/* section contains only true
						   machine instructions */
#define S_ATTR_NO_TOC 		 0x40000000	/* section contains coalesced
						   symbols that are not to be
						   in a ranlib table of
						   contents */
#define S_ATTR_STRIP_STATIC_SYMS 0x20000000	/* ok to strip static symbols
						   in this section in files
						   with the MH_DYLDLINK flag */
#define S_ATTR_NO_DEAD_STRIP	 0x10000000	/* no dead stripping */
#define S_ATTR_LIVE_SUPPORT	 0x08000000	/* blocks are live if they
						   reference live blocks */
#define S_ATTR_SELF_MODIFYING_CODE 0x04000000	/* Used with i386 code stubs
						   written on by dyld */
/*
 * If a segment contains any sections marked with S_ATTR_DEBUG then all
 * sections in that segment must have this attribute.  No section other than
 * a section marked with this attribute may reference the contents of this
 * section.  A section with this attribute may contain no symbols and must have
 * a section type S_REGULAR.  The static linker will not copy section contents
 * from sections with this attribute into its output file.  These sections
 * generally contain DWARF debugging info.
 */ 
#define	S_ATTR_DEBUG		 0x02000000	/* a debug section */
#define SECTION_ATTRIBUTES_SYS	 0x00ffff00	/* system setable attributes */
#define S_ATTR_SOME_INSTRUCTIONS 0x00000400	/* section contains some
						   machine instructions */
#define S_ATTR_EXT_RELOC	 0x00000200	/* section has external
						   relocation entries */
#define S_ATTR_LOC_RELOC	 0x00000100	/* section has local
						   relocation entries */


/*
 * The names of segments and sections in them are mostly meaningless to the
 * link-editor.  But there are few things to support traditional UNIX
 * executables that require the link-editor and assembler to use some names
 * agreed upon by convention.
 *
 * The initial protection of the "__TEXT" segment has write protection turned
 * off (not writeable).
 *
 * The link-editor will allocate common symbols at the end of the "__common"
 * section in the "__DATA" segment.  It will create the section and segment
 * if needed.
 */

/* The currently known segment names and the section names in those segments */

#define	SEG_PAGEZERO	"__PAGEZERO"	/* the pagezero segment which has no */
					/* protections and catches NULL */
					/* references for MH_EXECUTE files */


#define	SEG_TEXT	"__TEXT"	/* the tradition UNIX text segment */
#define	SECT_TEXT	"__text"	/* the real text part of the text */
					/* section no headers, and no padding */
#define SECT_FVMLIB_INIT0 "__fvmlib_init0"	/* the fvmlib initialization */
						/*  section */
#define SECT_FVMLIB_INIT1 "__fvmlib_init1"	/* the section following the */
					        /*  fvmlib initialization */
						/*  section */

#define	SEG_DATA	"__DATA"	/* the tradition UNIX data segment */
#define	SECT_DATA	"__data"	/* the real initialized data section */
					/* no padding, no bss overlap */
#define	SECT_BSS	"__bss"		/* the real uninitialized data section*/
					/* no padding */
#define SECT_COMMON	"__common"	/* the section common symbols are */
					/* allocated in by the link editor */

#define	SEG_OBJC	"__OBJC"	/* objective-C runtime segment */
#define SECT_OBJC_SYMBOLS "__symbol_table"	/* symbol table */
#define SECT_OBJC_MODULES "__module_info"	/* module information */
#define SECT_OBJC_STRINGS "__selector_strs"	/* string table */
#define SECT_OBJC_REFS "__selector_refs"	/* string table */

#define	SEG_ICON	 "__ICON"	/* the icon segment */
#define	SECT_ICON_HEADER "__header"	/* the icon headers */
#define	SECT_ICON_TIFF   "__tiff"	/* the icons in tiff format */

#define	SEG_LINKEDIT	"__LINKEDIT"	/* the segment containing all structs */
					/* created and maintained by the link */
					/* editor.  Created with -seglinkedit */
					/* option to ld(1) for MH_EXECUTE and */
					/* FVMLIB file types only */

#define SEG_LINKINFO	"__LINKINFO"	/* the segment overlapping with linkedit */
					/* containing linking information */

#define SEG_UNIXSTACK	"__UNIXSTACK"	/* the unix stack segment */

#define SEG_IMPORT	"__IMPORT"	/* the segment for the self (dyld) */
					/* modifing code stubs that has read, */
					/* write and execute permissions */

/*
 * Fixed virtual memory shared libraries are identified by two things.  The
 * target pathname (the name of the library as found for execution), and the
 * minor version number.  The address of where the headers are loaded is in
 * header_addr. (THIS IS OBSOLETE and no longer supported).
 */
struct fvmlib {
	union lc_str	name;		/* library's target pathname */
	uint32_t	minor_version;	/* library's minor version number */
	uint32_t	header_addr;	/* library's header address */
};

/*
 * A fixed virtual shared library (filetype == MH_FVMLIB in the mach header)
 * contains a fvmlib_command (cmd == LC_IDFVMLIB) to identify the library.
 * An object that uses a fixed virtual shared library also contains a
 * fvmlib_command (cmd == LC_LOADFVMLIB) for each library it uses.
 * (THIS IS OBSOLETE and no longer supported).
 */
struct fvmlib_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_IDFVMLIB or LC_LOADFVMLIB */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes pathname string */
	struct fvmlib	fvmlib;		/* the library identification */
};

/*
 * Dynamicly linked shared libraries are identified by two things.  The
 * pathname (the name of the library as found for execution), and the
 * compatibility version number.  The pathname must match and the compatibility
 * number in the user of the library must be greater than or equal to the
 * library being used.  The time stamp is used to record the time a library was
 * built and copied into user so it can be use to determined if the library used
 * at runtime is exactly the same as used to built the program.
 */
struct dylib {
    union lc_str  name;			/* library's path name */
    uint32_t timestamp;			/* library's build time stamp */
    uint32_t current_version;		/* library's current version number */
    uint32_t compatibility_version;	/* library's compatibility vers number*/
};

/*
 * A dynamically linked shared library (filetype == MH_DYLIB in the mach header)
 * contains a dylib_command (cmd == LC_ID_DYLIB) to identify the library.
 * An object that uses a dynamically linked shared library also contains a
 * dylib_command (cmd == LC_LOAD_DYLIB, LC_LOAD_WEAK_DYLIB, or
 * LC_REEXPORT_DYLIB) for each library it uses.
 */
struct dylib_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_ID_DYLIB, LC_LOAD_{,WEAK_}DYLIB,
					   LC_REEXPORT_DYLIB */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes pathname string */
	struct dylib	dylib;		/* the library identification */
};

/*
 * A dynamically linked shared library may be a subframework of an umbrella
 * framework.  If so it will be linked with "-umbrella umbrella_name" where
 * Where "umbrella_name" is the name of the umbrella framework. A subframework
 * can only be linked against by its umbrella framework or other subframeworks
 * that are part of the same umbrella framework.  Otherwise the static link
 * editor produces an error and states to link against the umbrella framework.
 * The name of the umbrella framework for subframeworks is recorded in the
 * following structure.
 */
struct sub_framework_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_SUB_FRAMEWORK */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes umbrella string */
	union lc_str 	umbrella;	/* the umbrella framework name */
};

/*
 * For dynamically linked shared libraries that are subframework of an umbrella
 * framework they can allow clients other than the umbrella framework or other
 * subframeworks in the same umbrella framework.  To do this the subframework
 * is built with "-allowable_client client_name" and an LC_SUB_CLIENT load
 * command is created for each -allowable_client flag.  The client_name is
 * usually a framework name.  It can also be a name used for bundles clients
 * where the bundle is built with "-client_name client_name".
 */
struct sub_client_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_SUB_CLIENT */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes client string */
	union lc_str 	client;		/* the client name */
};

/*
 * A dynamically linked shared library may be a sub_umbrella of an umbrella
 * framework.  If so it will be linked with "-sub_umbrella umbrella_name" where
 * Where "umbrella_name" is the name of the sub_umbrella framework.  When
 * staticly linking when -twolevel_namespace is in effect a twolevel namespace 
 * umbrella framework will only cause its subframeworks and those frameworks
 * listed as sub_umbrella frameworks to be implicited linked in.  Any other
 * dependent dynamic libraries will not be linked it when -twolevel_namespace
 * is in effect.  The primary library recorded by the static linker when
 * resolving a symbol in these libraries will be the umbrella framework.
 * Zero or more sub_umbrella frameworks may be use by an umbrella framework.
 * The name of a sub_umbrella framework is recorded in the following structure.
 */
struct sub_umbrella_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_SUB_UMBRELLA */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes sub_umbrella string */
	union lc_str 	sub_umbrella;	/* the sub_umbrella framework name */
};

/*
 * A dynamically linked shared library may be a sub_library of another shared
 * library.  If so it will be linked with "-sub_library library_name" where
 * Where "library_name" is the name of the sub_library shared library.  When
 * staticly linking when -twolevel_namespace is in effect a twolevel namespace 
 * shared library will only cause its subframeworks and those frameworks
 * listed as sub_umbrella frameworks and libraries listed as sub_libraries to
 * be implicited linked in.  Any other dependent dynamic libraries will not be
 * linked it when -twolevel_namespace is in effect.  The primary library
 * recorded by the static linker when resolving a symbol in these libraries
 * will be the umbrella framework (or dynamic library). Zero or more sub_library
 * shared libraries may be use by an umbrella framework or (or dynamic library).
 * The name of a sub_library framework is recorded in the following structure.
 * For example /usr/lib/libobjc_profile.A.dylib would be recorded as "libobjc".
 */
struct sub_library_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_SUB_LIBRARY */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes sub_library string */
	union lc_str 	sub_library;	/* the sub_library name */
};

/*
 * A program (filetype == MH_EXECUTE) that is
 * prebound to its dynamic libraries has one of these for each library that
 * the static linker used in prebinding.  It contains a bit vector for the
 * modules in the library.  The bits indicate which modules are bound (1) and
 * which are not (0) from the library.  The bit for module 0 is the low bit
 * of the first byte.  So the bit for the Nth module is:
 * (linked_modules[N/8] >> N%8) & 1
 */
struct prebound_dylib_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_PREBOUND_DYLIB */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes strings */
	union lc_str	name;		/* library's path name */
	uint32_t	nmodules;	/* number of modules in library */
	union lc_str	linked_modules;	/* bit vector of linked modules */
};

/*
 * A program that uses a dynamic linker contains a dylinker_command to identify
 * the name of the dynamic linker (LC_LOAD_DYLINKER).  And a dynamic linker
 * contains a dylinker_command to identify the dynamic linker (LC_ID_DYLINKER).
 * A file can have at most one of these.
 * This struct is also used for the LC_DYLD_ENVIRONMENT load command and
 * contains string for dyld to treat like environment variable.
 */
struct dylinker_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_ID_DYLINKER, LC_LOAD_DYLINKER or
					   LC_DYLD_ENVIRONMENT */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* includes pathname string */
	union lc_str    name;		/* dynamic linker's path name */
};

/*
 * Thread commands contain machine-specific data structures suitable for
 * use in the thread state primitives.  The machine specific data structures
 * follow the struct thread_command as follows.
 * Each flavor of machine specific data structure is preceded by an uint32_t
 * constant for the flavor of that data structure, an uint32_t that is the
 * count of uint32_t's of the size of the state data structure and then
 * the state data structure follows.  This triple may be repeated for many
 * flavors.  The constants for the flavors, counts and state data structure
 * definitions are expected to be in the header file <machine/thread_status.h>.
 * These machine specific data structures sizes must be multiples of
 * 4 bytes.  The cmdsize reflects the total size of the thread_command
 * and all of the sizes of the constants for the flavors, counts and state
 * data structures.
 *
 * For executable objects that are unix processes there will be one
 * thread_command (cmd == LC_UNIXTHREAD) created for it by the link-editor.
 * This is the same as a LC_THREAD, except that a stack is automatically
 * created (based on the shell's limit for the stack size).  Command arguments
 * and environment variables are copied onto that stack.
 */
struct thread_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_THREAD or  LC_UNIXTHREAD */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* total size of this command */
	/* uint32_t flavor		   flavor of thread state */
	/* uint32_t count		   count of uint32_t's in thread state */
	/* struct XXX_thread_state state   thread state for this flavor */
	/* ... */
};

/*
 * The routines command contains the address of the dynamic shared library 
 * initialization routine and an index into the module table for the module
 * that defines the routine.  Before any modules are used from the library the
 * dynamic linker fully binds the module that defines the initialization routine
 * and then calls it.  This gets called before any module initialization
 * routines (used for C++ static constructors) in the library.
 */
struct routines_command { /* for 32-bit architectures */
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_ROUTINES */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* total size of this command */
	uint32_t	init_address;	/* address of initialization routine */
	uint32_t	init_module;	/* index into the module table that */
				        /*  the init routine is defined in */
	uint32_t	reserved1;
	uint32_t	reserved2;
	uint32_t	reserved3;
	uint32_t	reserved4;
	uint32_t	reserved5;
	uint32_t	reserved6;
};

/*
 * The 64-bit routines command.  Same use as above.
 */
struct routines_command_64 { /* for 64-bit architectures */
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_ROUTINES_64 */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* total size of this command */
	uint64_t	init_address;	/* address of initialization routine */
	uint64_t	init_module;	/* index into the module table that */
					/*  the init routine is defined in */
	uint64_t	reserved1;
	uint64_t	reserved2;
	uint64_t	reserved3;
	uint64_t	reserved4;
	uint64_t	reserved5;
	uint64_t	reserved6;
};

/*
 * The symtab_command contains the offsets and sizes of the link-edit 4.3BSD
 * "stab" style symbol table information as described in the header files
 * <nlist.h> and <stab.h>.
 */
struct symtab_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_SYMTAB */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct symtab_command) */
	uint32_t	symoff;		/* symbol table offset */
	uint32_t	nsyms;		/* number of symbol table entries */
	uint32_t	stroff;		/* string table offset */
	uint32_t	strsize;	/* string table size in bytes */
};

/*
 * This is the second set of the symbolic information which is used to support
 * the data structures for the dynamically link editor.
 *
 * The original set of symbolic information in the symtab_command which contains
 * the symbol and string tables must also be present when this load command is
 * present.  When this load command is present the symbol table is organized
 * into three groups of symbols:
 *	local symbols (static and debugging symbols) - grouped by module
 *	defined external symbols - grouped by module (sorted by name if not lib)
 *	undefined external symbols (sorted by name if MH_BINDATLOAD is not set,
 *	     			    and in order the were seen by the static
 *				    linker if MH_BINDATLOAD is set)
 * In this load command there are offsets and counts to each of the three groups
 * of symbols.
 *
 * This load command contains a the offsets and sizes of the following new
 * symbolic information tables:
 *	table of contents
 *	module table
 *	reference symbol table
 *	indirect symbol table
 * The first three tables above (the table of contents, module table and
 * reference symbol table) are only present if the file is a dynamically linked
 * shared library.  For executable and object modules, which are files
 * containing only one module, the information that would be in these three
 * tables is determined as follows:
 * 	table of contents - the defined external symbols are sorted by name
 *	module table - the file contains only one module so everything in the
 *		       file is part of the module.
 *	reference symbol table - is the defined and undefined external symbols
 *
 * For dynamically linked shared library files this load command also contains
 * offsets and sizes to the pool of relocation entries for all sections
 * separated into two groups:
 *	external relocation entries
 *	local relocation entries
 * For executable and object modules the relocation entries continue to hang
 * off the section structures.
 */
struct dysymtab_command {
    uint32_t cmd;	/* LC_DYSYMTAB */
    uint32_t cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct dysymtab_command) */

    /*
     * The symbols indicated by symoff and nsyms of the LC_SYMTAB load command
     * are grouped into the following three groups:
     *    local symbols (further grouped by the module they are from)
     *    defined external symbols (further grouped by the module they are from)
     *    undefined symbols
     *
     * The local symbols are used only for debugging.  The dynamic binding
     * process may have to use them to indicate to the debugger the local
     * symbols for a module that is being bound.
     *
     * The last two groups are used by the dynamic binding process to do the
     * binding (indirectly through the module table and the reference symbol
     * table when this is a dynamically linked shared library file).
     */
    uint32_t ilocalsym;	/* index to local symbols */
    uint32_t nlocalsym;	/* number of local symbols */

    uint32_t iextdefsym;/* index to externally defined symbols */
    uint32_t nextdefsym;/* number of externally defined symbols */

    uint32_t iundefsym;	/* index to undefined symbols */
    uint32_t nundefsym;	/* number of undefined symbols */

    /*
     * For the for the dynamic binding process to find which module a symbol
     * is defined in the table of contents is used (analogous to the ranlib
     * structure in an archive) which maps defined external symbols to modules
     * they are defined in.  This exists only in a dynamically linked shared
     * library file.  For executable and object modules the defined external
     * symbols are sorted by name and is use as the table of contents.
     */
    uint32_t tocoff;	/* file offset to table of contents */
    uint32_t ntoc;	/* number of entries in table of contents */

    /*
     * To support dynamic binding of "modules" (whole object files) the symbol
     * table must reflect the modules that the file was created from.  This is
     * done by having a module table that has indexes and counts into the merged
     * tables for each module.  The module structure that these two entries
     * refer to is described below.  This exists only in a dynamically linked
     * shared library file.  For executable and object modules the file only
     * contains one module so everything in the file belongs to the module.
     */
    uint32_t modtaboff;	/* file offset to module table */
    uint32_t nmodtab;	/* number of module table entries */

    /*
     * To support dynamic module binding the module structure for each module
     * indicates the external references (defined and undefined) each module
     * makes.  For each module there is an offset and a count into the
     * reference symbol table for the symbols that the module references.
     * This exists only in a dynamically linked shared library file.  For
     * executable and object modules the defined external symbols and the
     * undefined external symbols indicates the external references.
     */
    uint32_t extrefsymoff;	/* offset to referenced symbol table */
    uint32_t nextrefsyms;	/* number of referenced symbol table entries */

    /*
     * The sections that contain "symbol pointers" and "routine stubs" have
     * indexes and (implied counts based on the size of the section and fixed
     * size of the entry) into the "indirect symbol" table for each pointer
     * and stub.  For every section of these two types the index into the
     * indirect symbol table is stored in the section header in the field
     * reserved1.  An indirect symbol table entry is simply a 32bit index into
     * the symbol table to the symbol that the pointer or stub is referring to.
     * The indirect symbol table is ordered to match the entries in the section.
     */
    uint32_t indirectsymoff; /* file offset to the indirect symbol table */
    uint32_t nindirectsyms;  /* number of indirect symbol table entries */

    /*
     * To support relocating an individual module in a library file quickly the
     * external relocation entries for each module in the library need to be
     * accessed efficiently.  Since the relocation entries can't be accessed
     * through the section headers for a library file they are separated into
     * groups of local and external entries further grouped by module.  In this
     * case the presents of this load command who's extreloff, nextrel,
     * locreloff and nlocrel fields are non-zero indicates that the relocation
     * entries of non-merged sections are not referenced through the section
     * structures (and the reloff and nreloc fields in the section headers are
     * set to zero).
     *
     * Since the relocation entries are not accessed through the section headers
     * this requires the r_address field to be something other than a section
     * offset to identify the item to be relocated.  In this case r_address is
     * set to the offset from the vmaddr of the first LC_SEGMENT command.
     * For MH_SPLIT_SEGS images r_address is set to the the offset from the
     * vmaddr of the first read-write LC_SEGMENT command.
     *
     * The relocation entries are grouped by module and the module table
     * entries have indexes and counts into them for the group of external
     * relocation entries for that the module.
     *
     * For sections that are merged across modules there must not be any
     * remaining external relocation entries for them (for merged sections
     * remaining relocation entries must be local).
     */
    uint32_t extreloff;	/* offset to external relocation entries */
    uint32_t nextrel;	/* number of external relocation entries */

    /*
     * All the local relocation entries are grouped together (they are not
     * grouped by their module since they are only used if the object is moved
     * from it staticly link edited address).
     */
    uint32_t locreloff;	/* offset to local relocation entries */
    uint32_t nlocrel;	/* number of local relocation entries */

};	

/*
 * An indirect symbol table entry is simply a 32bit index into the symbol table 
 * to the symbol that the pointer or stub is refering to.  Unless it is for a
 * non-lazy symbol pointer section for a defined symbol which strip(1) as 
 * removed.  In which case it has the value INDIRECT_SYMBOL_LOCAL.  If the
 * symbol was also absolute INDIRECT_SYMBOL_ABS is or'ed with that.
 */
#define INDIRECT_SYMBOL_LOCAL	0x80000000
#define INDIRECT_SYMBOL_ABS	0x40000000


/* a table of contents entry */
struct dylib_table_of_contents {
    uint32_t symbol_index;	/* the defined external symbol
				   (index into the symbol table) */
    uint32_t module_index;	/* index into the module table this symbol
				   is defined in */
};	

/* a module table entry */
struct dylib_module {
    uint32_t module_name;	/* the module name (index into string table) */

    uint32_t iextdefsym;	/* index into externally defined symbols */
    uint32_t nextdefsym;	/* number of externally defined symbols */
    uint32_t irefsym;		/* index into reference symbol table */
    uint32_t nrefsym;		/* number of reference symbol table entries */
    uint32_t ilocalsym;		/* index into symbols for local symbols */
    uint32_t nlocalsym;		/* number of local symbols */

    uint32_t iextrel;		/* index into external relocation entries */
    uint32_t nextrel;		/* number of external relocation entries */

    uint32_t iinit_iterm;	/* low 16 bits are the index into the init
				   section, high 16 bits are the index into
			           the term section */
    uint32_t ninit_nterm;	/* low 16 bits are the number of init section
				   entries, high 16 bits are the number of
				   term section entries */

    uint32_t			/* for this module address of the start of */
	objc_module_info_addr;  /*  the (__OBJC,__module_info) section */
    uint32_t			/* for this module size of */
	objc_module_info_size;	/*  the (__OBJC,__module_info) section */
};	

/* a 64-bit module table entry */
struct dylib_module_64 {
    uint32_t module_name;	/* the module name (index into string table) */

    uint32_t iextdefsym;	/* index into externally defined symbols */
    uint32_t nextdefsym;	/* number of externally defined symbols */
    uint32_t irefsym;		/* index into reference symbol table */
    uint32_t nrefsym;		/* number of reference symbol table entries */
    uint32_t ilocalsym;		/* index into symbols for local symbols */
    uint32_t nlocalsym;		/* number of local symbols */

    uint32_t iextrel;		/* index into external relocation entries */
    uint32_t nextrel;		/* number of external relocation entries */

    uint32_t iinit_iterm;	/* low 16 bits are the index into the init
				   section, high 16 bits are the index into
				   the term section */
    uint32_t ninit_nterm;      /* low 16 bits are the number of init section
				  entries, high 16 bits are the number of
				  term section entries */

    uint32_t			/* for this module size of */
        objc_module_info_size;	/*  the (__OBJC,__module_info) section */
    uint64_t			/* for this module address of the start of */
        objc_module_info_addr;	/*  the (__OBJC,__module_info) section */
};

/* 
 * The entries in the reference symbol table are used when loading the module
 * (both by the static and dynamic link editors) and if the module is unloaded
 * or replaced.  Therefore all external symbols (defined and undefined) are
 * listed in the module's reference table.  The flags describe the type of
 * reference that is being made.  The constants for the flags are defined in
 * <mach-o/nlist.h> as they are also used for symbol table entries.
 */
struct dylib_reference {
    uint32_t isym:24,		/* index into the symbol table */
    		  flags:8;	/* flags to indicate the type of reference */
};

/*
 * The twolevel_hints_command contains the offset and number of hints in the
 * two-level namespace lookup hints table.
 */
struct twolevel_hints_command {
    uint32_t cmd;	/* LC_TWOLEVEL_HINTS */
    uint32_t cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct twolevel_hints_command) */
    uint32_t offset;	/* offset to the hint table */
    uint32_t nhints;	/* number of hints in the hint table */
};

/*
 * The entries in the two-level namespace lookup hints table are twolevel_hint
 * structs.  These provide hints to the dynamic link editor where to start
 * looking for an undefined symbol in a two-level namespace image.  The
 * isub_image field is an index into the sub-images (sub-frameworks and
 * sub-umbrellas list) that made up the two-level image that the undefined
 * symbol was found in when it was built by the static link editor.  If
 * isub-image is 0 the the symbol is expected to be defined in library and not
 * in the sub-images.  If isub-image is non-zero it is an index into the array
 * of sub-images for the umbrella with the first index in the sub-images being
 * 1. The array of sub-images is the ordered list of sub-images of the umbrella
 * that would be searched for a symbol that has the umbrella recorded as its
 * primary library.  The table of contents index is an index into the
 * library's table of contents.  This is used as the starting point of the
 * binary search or a directed linear search.
 */
struct twolevel_hint {
    uint32_t 
	isub_image:8,	/* index into the sub images */
	itoc:24;	/* index into the table of contents */
};

/*
 * The prebind_cksum_command contains the value of the original check sum for
 * prebound files or zero.  When a prebound file is first created or modified
 * for other than updating its prebinding information the value of the check sum
 * is set to zero.  When the file has it prebinding re-done and if the value of
 * the check sum is zero the original check sum is calculated and stored in
 * cksum field of this load command in the output file.  If when the prebinding
 * is re-done and the cksum field is non-zero it is left unchanged from the
 * input file.
 */
struct prebind_cksum_command {
    uint32_t cmd;	/* LC_PREBIND_CKSUM */
    uint32_t cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct prebind_cksum_command) */
    uint32_t cksum;	/* the check sum or zero */
};

/*
 * The uuid load command contains a single 128-bit unique random number that
 * identifies an object produced by the static link editor.
 */
struct uuid_command {
    uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_UUID */
    uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct uuid_command) */
    uint8_t	uuid[16];	/* the 128-bit uuid */
};

/*
 * The rpath_command contains a path which at runtime should be added to
 * the current run path used to find @rpath prefixed dylibs.
 */
struct rpath_command {
    uint32_t	 cmd;		/* LC_RPATH */
    uint32_t	 cmdsize;	/* includes string */
    union lc_str path;		/* path to add to run path */
};

/*
 * The linkedit_data_command contains the offsets and sizes of a blob
 * of data in the __LINKEDIT segment.  
 */
struct linkedit_data_command {
    uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_CODE_SIGNATURE, LC_SEGMENT_SPLIT_INFO,
                                   LC_FUNCTION_STARTS, LC_DATA_IN_CODE,
				   LC_DYLIB_CODE_SIGN_DRS,
				   LC_LINKER_OPTIMIZATION_HINT,
				   LC_DYLD_EXPORTS_TRIE, or
				   LC_DYLD_CHAINED_FIXUPS. */
    uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct linkedit_data_command) */
    uint32_t	dataoff;	/* file offset of data in __LINKEDIT segment */
    uint32_t	datasize;	/* file size of data in __LINKEDIT segment  */
};

struct fileset_entry_command {
    uint32_t        cmd;        /* LC_FILESET_ENTRY */
    uint32_t        cmdsize;    /* includes id string */
    uint64_t        vmaddr;     /* memory address of the dylib */
    uint64_t        fileoff;    /* file offset of the dylib */
    union lc_str    entry_id;   /* contained entry id */
    uint32_t        reserved;   /* entry_id is 32-bits long, so this is the reserved padding */
};

/*
 * The encryption_info_command contains the file offset and size of an
 * of an encrypted segment.
 */
struct encryption_info_command {
   uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_ENCRYPTION_INFO */
   uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct encryption_info_command) */
   uint32_t	cryptoff;	/* file offset of encrypted range */
   uint32_t	cryptsize;	/* file size of encrypted range */
   uint32_t	cryptid;	/* which enryption system,
				   0 means not-encrypted yet */
};

/*
 * The encryption_info_command_64 contains the file offset and size of an
 * of an encrypted segment (for use in x86_64 targets).
 */
struct encryption_info_command_64 {
   uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_ENCRYPTION_INFO_64 */
   uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct encryption_info_command_64) */
   uint32_t	cryptoff;	/* file offset of encrypted range */
   uint32_t	cryptsize;	/* file size of encrypted range */
   uint32_t	cryptid;	/* which enryption system,
				   0 means not-encrypted yet */
   uint32_t	pad;		/* padding to make this struct's size a multiple
				   of 8 bytes */
};

/*
 * The version_min_command contains the min OS version on which this 
 * binary was built to run.
 */
struct version_min_command {
    uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_VERSION_MIN_MACOSX or
				   LC_VERSION_MIN_IPHONEOS or
				   LC_VERSION_MIN_WATCHOS or
				   LC_VERSION_MIN_TVOS */
    uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct min_version_command) */
    uint32_t	version;	/* X.Y.Z is encoded in nibbles xxxx.yy.zz */
    uint32_t	sdk;		/* X.Y.Z is encoded in nibbles xxxx.yy.zz */
};

/*
 * The build_version_command contains the min OS version on which this
 * binary was built to run for its platform.  The list of known platforms and
 * tool values following it.
 */
struct build_version_command {
    uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_BUILD_VERSION */
    uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct build_version_command) plus */
                                /* ntools * sizeof(struct build_tool_version) */
    uint32_t	platform;	/* platform */
    uint32_t	minos;		/* X.Y.Z is encoded in nibbles xxxx.yy.zz */
    uint32_t	sdk;		/* X.Y.Z is encoded in nibbles xxxx.yy.zz */
    uint32_t	ntools;		/* number of tool entries following this */
};

struct build_tool_version {
    uint32_t	tool;		/* enum for the tool */
    uint32_t	version;	/* version number of the tool */
};

/* Known values for the platform field above. */
#define PLATFORM_MACOS 1
#define PLATFORM_IOS 2
#define PLATFORM_TVOS 3
#define PLATFORM_WATCHOS 4
#define PLATFORM_BRIDGEOS 5
#define PLATFORM_MACCATALYST 6
#define PLATFORM_IOSSIMULATOR 7
#define PLATFORM_TVOSSIMULATOR 8
#define PLATFORM_WATCHOSSIMULATOR 9
#define PLATFORM_DRIVERKIT 10
#define PLATFORM_MAX PLATFORM_DRIVERKIT
/* Addition of simulated platfrom also needs to update proc_is_simulated() */ 

/* Known values for the tool field above. */
#define TOOL_CLANG 1
#define TOOL_SWIFT 2
#define TOOL_LD	3

/*
 * The dyld_info_command contains the file offsets and sizes of 
 * the new compressed form of the information dyld needs to 
 * load the image.  This information is used by dyld on Mac OS X
 * 10.6 and later.  All information pointed to by this command
 * is encoded using byte streams, so no endian swapping is needed
 * to interpret it. 
 */
struct dyld_info_command {
   uint32_t   cmd;		/* LC_DYLD_INFO or LC_DYLD_INFO_ONLY */
   uint32_t   cmdsize;		/* sizeof(struct dyld_info_command) */

    /*
     * Dyld rebases an image whenever dyld loads it at an address different
     * from its preferred address.  The rebase information is a stream
     * of byte sized opcodes whose symbolic names start with REBASE_OPCODE_.
     * Conceptually the rebase information is a table of tuples:
     *    <seg-index, seg-offset, type>
     * The opcodes are a compressed way to encode the table by only
     * encoding when a column changes.  In addition simple patterns
     * like "every n'th offset for m times" can be encoded in a few
     * bytes.
     */
    uint32_t   rebase_off;	/* file offset to rebase info  */
    uint32_t   rebase_size;	/* size of rebase info   */
    
    /*
     * Dyld binds an image during the loading process, if the image
     * requires any pointers to be initialized to symbols in other images.  
     * The bind information is a stream of byte sized 
     * opcodes whose symbolic names start with BIND_OPCODE_.
     * Conceptually the bind information is a table of tuples:
     *    <seg-index, seg-offset, type, symbol-library-ordinal, symbol-name, addend>
     * The opcodes are a compressed way to encode the table by only
     * encoding when a column changes.  In addition simple patterns
     * like for runs of pointers initialzed to the same value can be 
     * encoded in a few bytes.
     */
    uint32_t   bind_off;	/* file offset to binding info   */
    uint32_t   bind_size;	/* size of binding info  */
        
    /*
     * Some C++ programs require dyld to unique symbols so that all
     * images in the process use the same copy of some code/data.
     * This step is done after binding. The content of the weak_bind
     * info is an opcode stream like the bind_info.  But it is sorted
     * alphabetically by symbol name.  This enable dyld to walk 
     * all images with weak binding information in order and look
     * for collisions.  If there are no collisions, dyld does
     * no updating.  That means that some fixups are also encoded
     * in the bind_info.  For instance, all calls to "operator new"
     * are first bound to libstdc++.dylib using the information
     * in bind_info.  Then if some image overrides operator new
     * that is detected when the weak_bind information is processed
     * and the call to operator new is then rebound.
     */
    uint32_t   weak_bind_off;	/* file offset to weak binding info   */
    uint32_t   weak_bind_size;  /* size of weak binding info  */
    
    /*
     * Some uses of external symbols do not need to be bound immediately.
     * Instead they can be lazily bound on first use.  The lazy_bind
     * are contains a stream of BIND opcodes to bind all lazy symbols.
     * Normal use is that dyld ignores the lazy_bind section when
     * loading an image.  Instead the static linker arranged for the
     * lazy pointer to initially point to a helper function which 
     * pushes the offset into the lazy_bind area for the symbol
     * needing to be bound, then jumps to dyld which simply adds
     * the offset to lazy_bind_off to get the information on what 
     * to bind.  
     */
    uint32_t   lazy_bind_off;	/* file offset to lazy binding info */
    uint32_t   lazy_bind_size;  /* size of lazy binding infs */
    
    /*
     * The symbols exported by a dylib are encoded in a trie.  This
     * is a compact representation that factors out common prefixes.
     * It also reduces LINKEDIT pages in RAM because it encodes all  
     * information (name, address, flags) in one small, contiguous range.
     * The export area is a stream of nodes.  The first node sequentially
     * is the start node for the trie.  
     *
     * Nodes for a symbol start with a uleb128 that is the length of
     * the exported symbol information for the string so far.
     * If there is no exported symbol, the node starts with a zero byte. 
     * If there is exported info, it follows the length.  
	 *
	 * First is a uleb128 containing flags. Normally, it is followed by
     * a uleb128 encoded offset which is location of the content named
     * by the symbol from the mach_header for the image.  If the flags
     * is EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_REEXPORT, then following the flags is
     * a uleb128 encoded library ordinal, then a zero terminated
     * UTF8 string.  If the string is zero length, then the symbol
     * is re-export from the specified dylib with the same name.
	 * If the flags is EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_STUB_AND_RESOLVER, then following
	 * the flags is two uleb128s: the stub offset and the resolver offset.
	 * The stub is used by non-lazy pointers.  The resolver is used
	 * by lazy pointers and must be called to get the actual address to use.
     *
     * After the optional exported symbol information is a byte of
     * how many edges (0-255) that this node has leaving it, 
     * followed by each edge.
     * Each edge is a zero terminated UTF8 of the addition chars
     * in the symbol, followed by a uleb128 offset for the node that
     * edge points to.
     *  
     */
    uint32_t   export_off;	/* file offset to lazy binding info */
    uint32_t   export_size;	/* size of lazy binding infs */
};

/*
 * The following are used to encode rebasing information
 */
#define REBASE_TYPE_POINTER					1
#define REBASE_TYPE_TEXT_ABSOLUTE32				2
#define REBASE_TYPE_TEXT_PCREL32				3

#define REBASE_OPCODE_MASK					0xF0
#define REBASE_IMMEDIATE_MASK					0x0F
#define REBASE_OPCODE_DONE					0x00
#define REBASE_OPCODE_SET_TYPE_IMM				0x10
#define REBASE_OPCODE_SET_SEGMENT_AND_OFFSET_ULEB		0x20
#define REBASE_OPCODE_ADD_ADDR_ULEB				0x30
#define REBASE_OPCODE_ADD_ADDR_IMM_SCALED			0x40
#define REBASE_OPCODE_DO_REBASE_IMM_TIMES			0x50
#define REBASE_OPCODE_DO_REBASE_ULEB_TIMES			0x60
#define REBASE_OPCODE_DO_REBASE_ADD_ADDR_ULEB			0x70
#define REBASE_OPCODE_DO_REBASE_ULEB_TIMES_SKIPPING_ULEB	0x80


/*
 * The following are used to encode binding information
 */
#define BIND_TYPE_POINTER					1
#define BIND_TYPE_TEXT_ABSOLUTE32				2
#define BIND_TYPE_TEXT_PCREL32					3

#define BIND_SPECIAL_DYLIB_SELF					 0
#define BIND_SPECIAL_DYLIB_MAIN_EXECUTABLE			-1
#define BIND_SPECIAL_DYLIB_FLAT_LOOKUP				-2
#define BIND_SPECIAL_DYLIB_WEAK_LOOKUP				-3

#define BIND_SYMBOL_FLAGS_WEAK_IMPORT				0x1
#define BIND_SYMBOL_FLAGS_NON_WEAK_DEFINITION			0x8

#define BIND_OPCODE_MASK					0xF0
#define BIND_IMMEDIATE_MASK					0x0F
#define BIND_OPCODE_DONE					0x00
#define BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_ORDINAL_IMM			0x10
#define BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_ORDINAL_ULEB			0x20
#define BIND_OPCODE_SET_DYLIB_SPECIAL_IMM			0x30
#define BIND_OPCODE_SET_SYMBOL_TRAILING_FLAGS_IMM		0x40
#define BIND_OPCODE_SET_TYPE_IMM				0x50
#define BIND_OPCODE_SET_ADDEND_SLEB				0x60
#define BIND_OPCODE_SET_SEGMENT_AND_OFFSET_ULEB			0x70
#define BIND_OPCODE_ADD_ADDR_ULEB				0x80
#define BIND_OPCODE_DO_BIND					0x90
#define BIND_OPCODE_DO_BIND_ADD_ADDR_ULEB			0xA0
#define BIND_OPCODE_DO_BIND_ADD_ADDR_IMM_SCALED			0xB0
#define BIND_OPCODE_DO_BIND_ULEB_TIMES_SKIPPING_ULEB		0xC0
#define	BIND_OPCODE_THREADED					0xD0
#define	BIND_SUBOPCODE_THREADED_SET_BIND_ORDINAL_TABLE_SIZE_ULEB 0x00
#define	BIND_SUBOPCODE_THREADED_APPLY				 0x01


/*
 * The following are used on the flags byte of a terminal node
 * in the export information.
 */
#define EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_KIND_MASK				0x03
#define EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_KIND_REGULAR			0x00
#define EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_KIND_THREAD_LOCAL			0x01
#define EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_KIND_ABSOLUTE			0x02
#define EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_WEAK_DEFINITION			0x04
#define EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_REEXPORT				0x08
#define EXPORT_SYMBOL_FLAGS_STUB_AND_RESOLVER			0x10

/*
 * The linker_option_command contains linker options embedded in object files.
 */
struct linker_option_command {
    uint32_t  cmd;	/* LC_LINKER_OPTION only used in MH_OBJECT filetypes */
    uint32_t  cmdsize;
    uint32_t  count;	/* number of strings */
    /* concatenation of zero terminated UTF8 strings.
       Zero filled at end to align */
};

/*
 * The symseg_command contains the offset and size of the GNU style
 * symbol table information as described in the header file <symseg.h>.
 * The symbol roots of the symbol segments must also be aligned properly
 * in the file.  So the requirement of keeping the offsets aligned to a
 * multiple of a 4 bytes translates to the length field of the symbol
 * roots also being a multiple of a long.  Also the padding must again be
 * zeroed. (THIS IS OBSOLETE and no longer supported).
 */
struct symseg_command {
	uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_SYMSEG */
	uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct symseg_command) */
	uint32_t	offset;		/* symbol segment offset */
	uint32_t	size;		/* symbol segment size in bytes */
};

/*
 * The ident_command contains a free format string table following the
 * ident_command structure.  The strings are null terminated and the size of
 * the command is padded out with zero bytes to a multiple of 4 bytes/
 * (THIS IS OBSOLETE and no longer supported).
 */
struct ident_command {
	uint32_t cmd;		/* LC_IDENT */
	uint32_t cmdsize;	/* strings that follow this command */
};

/*
 * The fvmfile_command contains a reference to a file to be loaded at the
 * specified virtual address.  (Presently, this command is reserved for
 * internal use.  The kernel ignores this command when loading a program into
 * memory).
 */
struct fvmfile_command {
	uint32_t cmd;			/* LC_FVMFILE */
	uint32_t cmdsize;		/* includes pathname string */
	union lc_str	name;		/* files pathname */
	uint32_t	header_addr;	/* files virtual address */
};


/*
 * The entry_point_command is a replacement for thread_command.
 * It is used for main executables to specify the location (file offset)
 * of main().  If -stack_size was used at link time, the stacksize
 * field will contain the stack size need for the main thread.
 */
struct entry_point_command {
    uint32_t  cmd;	/* LC_MAIN only used in MH_EXECUTE filetypes */
    uint32_t  cmdsize;	/* 24 */
    uint64_t  entryoff;	/* file (__TEXT) offset of main() */
    uint64_t  stacksize;/* if not zero, initial stack size */
};


/*
 * The source_version_command is an optional load command containing
 * the version of the sources used to build the binary.
 */
struct source_version_command {
    uint32_t  cmd;	/* LC_SOURCE_VERSION */
    uint32_t  cmdsize;	/* 16 */
    uint64_t  version;	/* A.B.C.D.E packed as a24.b10.c10.d10.e10 */
};


/*
 * The LC_DATA_IN_CODE load commands uses a linkedit_data_command 
 * to point to an array of data_in_code_entry entries. Each entry
 * describes a range of data in a code section.
 */
struct data_in_code_entry {
    uint32_t	offset;  /* from mach_header to start of data range*/
    uint16_t	length;  /* number of bytes in data range */
    uint16_t	kind;    /* a DICE_KIND_* value  */
};
#define DICE_KIND_DATA              0x0001
#define DICE_KIND_JUMP_TABLE8       0x0002
#define DICE_KIND_JUMP_TABLE16      0x0003
#define DICE_KIND_JUMP_TABLE32      0x0004
#define DICE_KIND_ABS_JUMP_TABLE32  0x0005



/*
 * Sections of type S_THREAD_LOCAL_VARIABLES contain an array 
 * of tlv_descriptor structures.
 */
struct tlv_descriptor
{
	void*		(*thunk)(struct tlv_descriptor*);
	unsigned long	key;
	unsigned long	offset;
};

/*
 * LC_NOTE commands describe a region of arbitrary data included in a Mach-O
 * file.  Its initial use is to record extra data in MH_CORE files.
 */
struct note_command {
    uint32_t	cmd;		/* LC_NOTE */
    uint32_t	cmdsize;	/* sizeof(struct note_command) */
    char	data_owner[16];	/* owner name for this LC_NOTE */
    uint64_t	offset;		/* file offset of this data */
    uint64_t	size;		/* length of data region */
};

#endif /* _MACHO_LOADER_H_ */