This is xnu-4903.221.2. See this file in:
What is XNU?
===========

XNU kernel is part of the Darwin operating system for use in macOS and iOS operating systems. XNU is an acronym for X is Not Unix.
XNU is a hybrid kernel combining the Mach kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University with components from FreeBSD and a C++ API for writing drivers called IOKit.
XNU runs on x86_64 for both single processor and multi-processor configurations.

XNU Source Tree
===============

  * `config` - configurations for exported apis for supported architecture and platform
  * `SETUP` - Basic set of tools used for configuring the kernel, versioning and kextsymbol management.
  * `EXTERNAL_HEADERS` - Headers sourced from other projects to avoid dependency cycles when building. These headers should be regularly synced when source is updated.
  * `libkern` - C++ IOKit library code for handling of drivers and kexts.
  * `libsa` -  kernel bootstrap code for startup
  * `libsyscall` - syscall library interface for userspace programs
  * `libkdd` - source for user library for parsing kernel data like kernel chunked data.
  * `makedefs` - top level rules and defines for kernel build.
  * `osfmk` - Mach kernel based subsystems
  * `pexpert` - Platform specific code like interrupt handling, atomics etc.
  * `security` - Mandatory Access Check policy interfaces and related implementation.
  * `bsd` - BSD subsystems code
  * `tools` - A set of utilities for testing, debugging and profiling kernel.

How to build XNU
================

Building `DEVELOPMENT` kernel
-----------------------------

The xnu make system can build kernel based on `KERNEL_CONFIGS` & `ARCH_CONFIGS` variables as arguments.
Here is the syntax:

    make SDKROOT=<sdkroot> ARCH_CONFIGS=<arch> KERNEL_CONFIGS=<variant>

Where:

  * \<sdkroot>: path to macOS SDK on disk. (defaults to `/`)
  * \<variant>: can be `debug`, `development`, `release`, `profile` and configures compilation flags and asserts throughout kernel code.
  * \<arch>   : can be valid arch to build for. (E.g. `X86_64`)

To build a kernel for the same architecture as running OS, just type

    $ make
    $ make SDKROOT=macosx.internal

Additionally, there is support for configuring architectures through `ARCH_CONFIGS` and kernel configurations with `KERNEL_CONFIGS`.

    $ make SDKROOT=macosx.internal ARCH_CONFIGS=X86_64 KERNEL_CONFIGS=DEVELOPMENT
    $ make SDKROOT=macosx.internal ARCH_CONFIGS=X86_64 KERNEL_CONFIGS="RELEASE DEVELOPMENT DEBUG"


Note:
  * By default, architecture is set to the build machine architecture, and the default kernel
    config is set to build for DEVELOPMENT.


This will also create a bootable image, kernel.[config],  and a kernel binary
with symbols, kernel.[config].unstripped.


  * To build with RELEASE kernel configuration

        make KERNEL_CONFIGS=RELEASE SDKROOT=/path/to/SDK


Building FAT kernel binary
--------------------------

Define architectures in your environment or when running a make command.

    $ make ARCH_CONFIGS="X86_64" exporthdrs all

Other makefile options
----------------------

 * $ make MAKEJOBS=-j8    # this will use 8 processes during the build. The default is 2x the number of active CPUS.
 * $ make -j8             # the standard command-line option is also accepted
 * $ make -w              # trace recursive make invocations. Useful in combination with VERBOSE=YES
 * $ make BUILD_LTO=0      # build without LLVM Link Time Optimization
 * $ make REMOTEBUILD=user@remotehost # perform build on remote host
 * $ make BUILD_JSON_COMPILATION_DATABASE=1 # Build Clang JSON Compilation Database

The XNU build system can optionally output color-formatted build output. To enable this, you can either
set the `XNU_LOGCOLORS` environment variable to `y`, or you can pass `LOGCOLORS=y` to the make command.


Debug information formats
=========================

By default, a DWARF debug information repository is created during the install phase; this is a "bundle" named kernel.development.\<variant>.dSYM
To select the older STABS debug information format (where debug information is embedded in the kernel.development.unstripped image), set the BUILD_STABS environment variable.

    $ export BUILD_STABS=1
    $ make


Building KernelCaches
=====================

To test the xnu kernel, you need to build a kernelcache that links the kexts and
kernel together into a single bootable image.
To build a kernelcache you can use the following mechanisms:

  * Using automatic kernelcache generation with `kextd`.
    The kextd daemon keeps watching for changing in `/System/Library/Extensions` directory. 
    So you can setup new kernel as

        $ cp BUILD/obj/DEVELOPMENT/X86_64/kernel.development /System/Library/Kernels/
        $ touch /System/Library/Extensions
        $ ps -e | grep kextd

  * Manually invoking `kextcache` to build new kernelcache.

        $ kextcache -q -z -a x86_64 -l -n -c /var/tmp/kernelcache.test -K /var/tmp/kernel.test /System/Library/Extensions



Running KernelCache on Target machine
=====================================

The development kernel and iBoot supports configuring boot arguments so that we can safely boot into test kernel and, if things go wrong, safely fall back to previously used kernelcache.
Following are the steps to get such a setup:

  1. Create kernel cache using the kextcache command as `/kernelcache.test`
  2. Copy exiting boot configurations to alternate file

         $ cp /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.Boot.plist /next_boot.plist

  3. Update the kernelcache and boot-args for your setup

         $ plutil -insert "Kernel Cache" -string "kernelcache.test" /next_boot.plist
         $ plutil -replace "Kernel Flags" -string "debug=0x144 -v kernelsuffix=test " /next_boot.plist

  4. Copy the new config to `/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/`

         $ cp /next_boot.plist /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/boot.plist

  5. Bless the volume with new configs.

         $ sudo -n bless  --mount / --setBoot --nextonly --options "config=boot"

     The `--nextonly` flag specifies that use the `boot.plist` configs only for one boot.
     So if the kernel panic's you can easily power reboot and recover back to original kernel.




Creating tags and cscope
========================

Set up your build environment and from the top directory, run:

    $ make tags     # this will build ctags and etags on a case-sensitive volume, only ctags on case-insensitive
    $ make TAGS     # this will build etags
    $ make cscope   # this will build cscope database


Coding styles (Reindenting files)
=================================

Source files can be reindented using clang-format setup in .clang-format.
XNU follows a variant of WebKit style for source code formatting.
Please refer to format styles at [WebKit website](http://www.webkit.org/coding/coding-style.html). 
Further options about style options is available at [clang docs](http://clang.llvm.org/docs/ClangFormatStyleOptions.html)

  Note: clang-format binary may not be part of base installation. It can be compiled from llvm clang sources and is reachable in $PATH.

  From the top directory, run:

   $ make reindent      # reindent all source files using clang format.



How to install a new header file from XNU
=========================================

To install IOKit headers, see additional comments in [iokit/IOKit/Makefile]().

XNU installs header files at the following locations -

    a. $(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/Headers
    b. $(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/PrivateHeaders
    c. $(DSTROOT)/usr/include/
    d. $(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/System.framework/PrivateHeaders

`Kernel.framework` is used by kernel extensions.\
The `System.framework` and `/usr/include` are used by user level applications. \
The header files in framework's `PrivateHeaders` are only available for ** Apple Internal Development **.

The directory containing the header file should have a Makefile that
creates the list of files that should be installed at different locations.
If you are adding the first header file in a directory, you will need to
create Makefile similar to `xnu/bsd/sys/Makefile`.

Add your header file to the correct file list depending on where you want
to install it. The default locations where the header files are installed
from each file list are -

    a. `DATAFILES` : To make header file available in user level -
       `$(DSTROOT)/usr/include`

    b. `PRIVATE_DATAFILES` : To make header file available to Apple internal in
       user level -
       `$(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/System.framework/PrivateHeaders`

    c. `KERNELFILES` : To make header file available in kernel level -
       `$(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/Headers`
       `$(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/PrivateHeaders`

    d. `PRIVATE_KERNELFILES` : To make header file available to Apple internal
       for kernel extensions -
       `$(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/PrivateHeaders`

The Makefile combines the file lists mentioned above into different
install lists which are used by build system to install the header files. There
are two types of install lists: machine-dependent and machine-independent.
These lists are indicated by the presence of `MD` and `MI` in the build
setting, respectively. If your header is architecture-specific, then you should
use a machine-dependent install list (e.g. `INSTALL_MD_LIST`). If your header
should be installed for all architectures, then you should use a
machine-independent install list (e.g. `INSTALL_MI_LIST`).

If the install list that you are interested does not exist, create it
by adding the appropriate file lists.  The default install lists, its
member file lists and their default location are described below -

    a. `INSTALL_MI_LIST` : Installs header file to a location that is available to everyone in user level.
        Locations -
           $(DSTROOT)/usr/include
       Definition -
           INSTALL_MI_LIST = ${DATAFILES}

    b.  `INSTALL_MI_LCL_LIST` : Installs header file to a location that is available
       for Apple internal in user level.
       Locations -
           $(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/System.framework/PrivateHeaders
       Definition -
           INSTALL_MI_LCL_LIST = ${PRIVATE_DATAFILES}

    c. `INSTALL_KF_MI_LIST` : Installs header file to location that is available
       to everyone for kernel extensions.
       Locations -
            $(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/Headers
       Definition -
            INSTALL_KF_MI_LIST = ${KERNELFILES}

    d. `INSTALL_KF_MI_LCL_LIST` : Installs header file to location that is
       available for Apple internal for kernel extensions.
       Locations -
            $(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/PrivateHeaders
       Definition -
            INSTALL_KF_MI_LCL_LIST = ${KERNELFILES} ${PRIVATE_KERNELFILES}

    e. `EXPORT_MI_LIST` : Exports header file to all of xnu (bsd/, osfmk/, etc.)
       for compilation only. Does not install anything into the SDK.
       Definition -
            EXPORT_MI_LIST = ${KERNELFILES} ${PRIVATE_KERNELFILES}

If you want to install the header file in a sub-directory of the paths
described in (1), specify the directory name using two variables
`INSTALL_MI_DIR` and `EXPORT_MI_DIR` as follows -

    INSTALL_MI_DIR = dirname
    EXPORT_MI_DIR = dirname

A single header file can exist at different locations using the steps
mentioned above.  However it might not be desirable to make all the code
in the header file available at all the locations.  For example, you
want to export a function only to kernel level but not user level.

 You can use C language's pre-processor directive (#ifdef, #endif, #ifndef)
 to control the text generated before a header file is installed.  The kernel
 only includes the code if the conditional macro is TRUE and strips out
 code for FALSE conditions from the header file.

 Some pre-defined macros and their descriptions are -

    a. `PRIVATE` : If defined, enclosed definitions are considered System
	Private Interfaces. These are visible within xnu and
	exposed in user/kernel headers installed within the AppleInternal
	"PrivateHeaders" sections of the System and Kernel frameworks.
    b. `KERNEL_PRIVATE` : If defined, enclosed code is available to all of xnu
	kernel and Apple internal kernel extensions and omitted from user
	headers.
    c. `BSD_KERNEL_PRIVATE` : If defined, enclosed code is visible exclusively
	within the xnu/bsd module.
    d. `MACH_KERNEL_PRIVATE`: If defined, enclosed code is visible exclusively
	within the xnu/osfmk module.
    e. `XNU_KERNEL_PRIVATE`: If defined, enclosed code is visible exclusively
	within xnu.
    f. `KERNEL` :  If defined, enclosed code is available within xnu and kernel
       extensions and is not visible in user level header files.  Only the
       header files installed in following paths will have the code -

            $(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/Headers
            $(DSTROOT)/System/Library/Frameworks/Kernel.framework/PrivateHeaders

Conditional compilation
=======================

`xnu` offers the following mechanisms for conditionally compiling code:

    a. *CPU Characteristics* If the code you are guarding has specific
    characterstics that will vary only based on the CPU architecture being
    targeted, use this option. Prefer checking for features of the
    architecture (e.g. `__LP64__`, `__LITTLE_ENDIAN__`, etc.).
    b. *New Features* If the code you are guarding, when taken together,
    implements a feature, you should define a new feature in `config/MASTER`
    and use the resulting `CONFIG` preprocessor token (e.g. for a feature
    named `config_virtual_memory`, check for `#if CONFIG_VIRTUAL_MEMORY`).
    This practice ensures that existing features may be brought to other
    platforms by simply changing a feature switch.
    c. *Existing Features* You can use existing features if your code is
    strongly tied to them (e.g. use `SECURE_KERNEL` if your code implements
    new functionality that is exclusively relevant to the trusted kernel and
    updates the definition/understanding of what being a trusted kernel means).

It is recommended that you avoid compiling based on the target platform. `xnu`
does not define the platform macros from `TargetConditionals.h`
(`TARGET_OS_OSX`, `TARGET_OS_IOS`, etc.).


There is a `TARGET_OS_EMBEDDED` macro, but this should be avoided as it is in
general too broad a definition for most functionality.

How to add a new syscall
========================




Testing the kernel
==================

XNU kernel has multiple mechanisms for testing.

  * Assertions - The DEVELOPMENT and DEBUG kernel configs are compiled with assertions enabled. This allows developers to easily
    test invariants and conditions.

  * XNU Power On Self Tests (`XNUPOST`): The XNUPOST config allows for building the kernel with basic set of test functions
    that are run before first user space process is launched. Since XNU is hybrid between MACH and BSD, we have two locations where
    tests can be added.

        xnu/osfmk/tests/     # For testing mach based kernel structures and apis.
        bsd/tests/           # For testing BSD interfaces.
    Please follow the documentation at [osfmk/tests/README.md](osfmk/tests/README.md)

  * User level tests: The `tools/tests/` directory holds all the tests that verify syscalls and other features of the xnu kernel.
    The make target `xnu_tests` can be used to build all the tests supported.

        $ make RC_ProjectName=xnu_tests SDKROOT=/path/to/SDK

    These tests are individual programs that can be run from Terminal and report tests status by means of std posix exit codes (0 -> success) and/or stdout.
    Please read detailed documentation in [tools/tests/unit_tests/README.md](tools/tests/unit_tests/README.md)


Kernel data descriptors
=======================

XNU uses different data formats for passing data in its api. The most standard way is using syscall arguments. But for complex data
it often relies of sending memory saved by C structs. This packaged data transport mechanism is fragile and leads to broken interfaces
between user space programs and kernel apis. `libkdd` directory holds user space library that can parse custom data provided by the
same version of kernel. The kernel chunked data format is described in detail at [libkdd/README.md](libkdd/README.md).


Debugging the kernel
====================

The xnu kernel supports debugging with a remote kernel debugging protocol (kdp). Please refer documentation at [technical note] [TN2063]
By default the kernel is setup to reboot on a panic. To debug a live kernel, the kdp server is setup to listen for UDP connections
over ethernet. For machines without ethernet port, this behavior can be altered with use of kernel boot-args. Following are some
common options.

  * `debug=0x144` - setups debug variables to start kdp debugserver on panic
  * `-v` - print kernel logs on screen. By default XNU only shows grey screen with boot art.
  * `kdp_match_name=en1` - Override default port selection for kdp. Supported for ethernet, thunderbolt and serial debugging.

To debug a panic'ed kernel, use llvm debugger (lldb) along with unstripped symbol rich kernel binary.

    sh$ lldb kernel.development.unstripped
    
And then you can connect to panic'ed machine with `kdp_remote [ip addr]` or `gdb_remote [hostip : port]` commands.

Each kernel is packaged with kernel specific debug scripts as part of the build process. For security reasons these special commands
and scripts do not get loaded automatically when lldb is connected to machine. Please add the following setting to your `~/.lldbinit`
if you wish to always load these macros.

    settings set target.load-script-from-symbol-file true

The `tools/lldbmacros` directory contains the source for each of these commands. Please follow the [README.md](tools/lldbmacros/README.md)
for detailed explanation of commands and their usage.

[TN2118]: https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/technotes/tn2004/tn2118.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/DTS10003352 "Kernel Core Dumps"
[TN2063]: https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/technotes/tn2063/_index.html "Understanding and Debugging Kernel Panics"
[Kernel Programming Guide]: https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Conceptual/KernelProgramming/build/build.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP30000905-CH221-BABDGEGF